Breast reduction (reduction mammoplasty) — surgery, contraindications, complications, before and after photos
Between the lobules of the gland, and about it has fat tissue, which volume can fluctuate considerably.
That is why breast size can change depending on diet. So often in older women the breast consists entirely of fat.
Also the size of the breast influenced by hormones, which explains the change in breast volume during the menstrual cycle or during menopause. Contrary to fairly popular belief, the female breast has no muscles, so to tighten or increment it with the help of physical processes is impossible.
During puberty or during pregnancy, women may experience unwanted breast enlargement, which is a wrong reaction of the mammary glands to hormonal changes in the body.
At such times, breast cancer can in a relatively short period of time, grow to impressive sizes. It is called hypertrophy of the breast.
Large Breasts is very difficult, so often becomes a source of discomfort and chronic pain. Often there are pains in the shoulders, neck, lower back, neck strain, headaches. In the inframammary folds as a result of constant moisture develops diaper rash.
It should be noted the fact that women with hypertrophic Breasts often have a predisposition to cancer of the breast.
Women who have Breasts that are too large, complaining of severe limitation of physical activity, since hypertrophied Breasts hinder your daily life. A huge problem is also the selection of clothes. Reduce the size of breast by using this operation.
Reduction mammoplasty is an operation which shows the asymmetry or hypertrophy of the mammary glands and pains in the dorsal and cervical spine.
This operation can be done at virtually any age, although some surgeons may refuse it if the patient is below 30 years.
During the execution of mammoplasty removes excess fat and glandular tissue, and skin. Often this is followed by a mastopexy – breast lift.
By removing excess tissue, doctors form a breast size that wants to be patient, make the Breasts firmer and more radiant. In addition, this interference allows to eliminate the asymmetry of the breast.
Among the main indication for the operation of reduction mammoplasty include:
- Hypertrophy breast (macromastia, gigantomastia), or abnormal growth of adipose or glandular breast tissue. Usually these processes are related to hormonal disorders and endocrine diseases, so women feel the need to conduct a survey by an endocrinologist to determine the cause of the pathology, and if necessary, take a course of conservative therapy prior to surgery.
- Physical and psychological discomfort that occurs due to the large size of the Breasts.
- A change of posture from excessive load on the spine.
- Pain in the chest and neck.
- The displacement of the axis of the body.
- Reduction of sensitivity in the chest area and the chest.
- Diaper rash and ulcerations of the skin in podzolistoi the crease.
By the way, it is carried out and in men with gynecomastia is breast hypertrophy, that is increase their size.
- age less than 18 years of age when the mammary gland has not yet finished form;
- pregnancy and breast-feeding;
- endocrine diseases, which contribute to the growth of the mammary glands (including obesity);
- severe diseases of internal organs (liver, kidneys, cardiovascular system);
- any tumors and cysts located in the mammary glands;
- violation of blood coagulability;
Before the surgery, the woman needs to be examined by a surgeon-mammologist. Given how this problem is serious, you should separate hypertrophy, which appeared after the birth and subsequent adolescence.
Before surgery the patient with a hypertrophy, resulting from endocrine disorders, it is necessary to conduct a thorough comprehensive examination and treatment, aims to stop the growth of the mammary glands, because otherwise they will grow and after surgery.
If the patient has fat hypertrophy, which occurs most often after childbirth, in this case, it is sufficient and customary study, which includes mammography and breast ultrasound.
Limitations in reduction mammoplasty
Be aware that the operation has some limitations:
- The results of this operation may change during pregnancy, serious weight fluctuations.
- Decrease the aura of the breast can not be carried out during menstruation and during the four days before it and after.
- Pregnancy can be planned only after 10-12 months after the operation.
Preparation for breast reduction
After seeing the breast surgeon-mammolog will offer you the most suitable option of surgery and prescribe all the necessary tests. Among the tests before implants are mandatory:
- General and biochemical blood analysis;
- chest x-ray;
- A breast ultrasound.
- determination of blood group and RH factor.
On consultation it is necessary to give the doctor information about the presence of diseases, operations, acceptance of vitamins and other medicines.
A week before surgery should stop taking krovanistaya drugs (hormones, aspirin, etc.), and also to give up alcohol.
As with any surgery, reduction mammoplasty involves quitting Smoking at least two weeks before surgery. On the day before surgery you should refrain from a hearty dinner.
If the patient plans weight loss, it is recommended to stabilize the weight before surgery, especially if the Breasts are sagging heavily and decrease.
The progress of the operation
During reduction mammoplasty, the surgeon removes excess glandular tissue, fatty tissue and skin and moves the nipple into a higher position. The duration of the operation is 2-3 hours.
Immediately before surgery, your doctor should take a picture of the chest and measure its parameters. Then a special marker is applied to the marking lines of the incisions and the breast is sterilized.
This operation is performed under General anesthesia, and can be used endotracheal or intravenous anesthesia.
The doctor will determine the best method of surgery based on the breast shape and volume the «extra» tissue. In most cases, sutures are placed in the shape of an inverted letter T, or applied in a vertical seam. Anchor reduction (using the T-cut) allows to obtain a long-lasting aesthetic results when operations of any complexity.
However, this method has a disadvantage – it’s high injury rate, which entails a long recovery period.
An alternative method of resection of the chest is a vertical reduction, which is used for small or medium volume reduction. This technique leaves scars smaller compared to the inverted T-technique.
When you have made the necessary incisions, the surgeon removes excess skin and fatty tissue, the nipple and areola, not separated from the blood supply and nerves are moved above. If necessary, the areola can be reduced.
In some cases, a strong reduction of large breast nipples and areola have to be separated and only then to move to another position. In this case, the lost sensitivity of the nipples and the possibility of breastfeeding.
At the end of operation imposed absorbable sutures. In most cases the line cuts much fade or become altogether invisible. However, almost all women faced with a similar problem, definitely decided that even visible scars on the chest is an acceptable result for the operation, allowing to improve the size and shape of the breast.
In addition, today, there are lots of different methods that solve the problem of scars. To remove blood and fluid install drains, sutures gauze bandage. The fixed breast compression bra.
Being in the hospital under constant supervision of a doctor is necessary for one to two days after surgery. On the third day definitely re-inspection, the bandages and drains are removed and the patient discharged home.
After reduction mammoplasty, as well as after any operation for the restoration of damaged tissue takes time. First, a woman may be suffering that occurs mainly because of swelling. However, pain can be easily relieve pain relieving drugs.
The rehabilitation period after surgery is about a month. About ten days after surgery you should avoid any physical exertion, and within six months – too heavy. The doctor has to appoint a woman to wear a special bra to support the Breasts.
To avoid pressure on the chest, the first time will have to sleep on my back. A minimum of one to two weeks should not show any sexual activity. After seven or fourteen days (depending on health) after the mammoplasty removed the outer seams, and is glued with a special adhesive, providing a quick and tidy seam scarring.
Initially, the incisions will be red or pink, but after five to six months after surgery will gradually fade. Swelling and bruising in the operated area pass in a few weeks. After the operation, the nipple sensitivity may be somewhat reduced. This phenomenon is temporary, but may be delayed up to several months.
The consequences and possible complications
Reduction mammoplasty is usually conducted by a qualified and experienced surgeon in a good hospital, has complications. However, there are exceptions, as the skill of the physician depends not all, are important as features of an organism of the woman. Possible complications after breast reduction:
- getting a wound infection;
- necrosis (necrosis) of the nipple or breast tissue in case of accidental intersection of major vessel that feeds it;
- loss of sensitivity
- asymmetry of breast and nipples;
- the formation of rough scars.
You must realize that reduction mammoplasty is a much more complex operation than breast augmentation, and therefore the clinic for this operation you must select with special care.
Pregnancy and breast-feeding
During pregnancy and during lactation reduction mammoplasty do not perform. Planning the operation not earlier than in six months after cessation of breastfeeding. Plan your pregnancy only after 10-12 months after surgery to reduce the breast.
After mammoplasty is contraindicated in breast-feeding, so after the birth it is necessary to take urgent measures for the immediate cessation of lactation. But still, doctors advise to carry out a similar operation to women over thirty years of age, which in the future do not plan to have children.
What else is important to know about mammoplasty
- While the surgeon and tries to after the surgery the Breasts are perfectly symmetrical, but to ensure absolute symmetry, he can not.
- A woman should be prepared for the fact that in a few years will occur in a slight drooping of the breast. However, the nipple-areola complex will remain in place, and the chest will still have an attractive aesthetic appearance.
- This operation in no way affects the appearance of breast cancer.
The cost of this operation depends on the chosen method of intervention, from the extent of the surgery (meaning the volume of the removed tissue), for Example, if it is only a slight breast reduction, it would be advantageous to not do breast surgery, and breast lift.
In the final amount also includes the cost of gauze dressings, medicines, payment of hospitalization, necessary consultations and re-examinations. With this in mind, the cost of operation will be from 7 to 10 thousand dollars.
If we look at different methods of reduction mammoplasty, it may be noted that prices here are significantly different. So, while liposuction surgery will cost about 90 thousand rubles, while the traditional method by Robbins – 180-240 thousand rubles. When applying the vertical seam at the Hall-Findley price will be in the range of 160-210 thousand, and breast reduction in gigantomastia cost 250-320 thousand rubles. Below are average prices for the operation:
|Breast implants||70000 RUB.|
|Correction of nipple||25000 RUB.|
|Breast augmentation||150000 RUB.|
|Breast reduction||75000 RUB.|
|Mastopexy (breast lift)||70000 RUB.|
If we consider Moscow clinics, the prices there range from 45 to 220 thousand rubles. In any case, the exact cost may only be determined after a consultation with a plastic surgeon and carrying out all mandatory tests. It is obvious that this operation is very costly, however, for long-term sustainable results that can significantly improve the quality of life, it is worth to pay that kind of money.
Photo: breast reduction, before and after reduction mammoplasty