Chemical peels

The mechanism of action is based on the negative stimulation – activation of regenerative processes in the skin in response to injury. Depending on the depth of the burn is formed by the reaction of the skin of varying intensity.


  • Superficial — involves only the Horny layer of the epidermis, sometimes of the entire epidermis to basement membrane (then often speak of superficial-medium peel).
  • The mid — reaches of the basement membrane and often captures the papillary layer of the dermis. It is located in the dermis fibroblasts, which generate protein fragments of elastin and collagen, natural moisturizing factor (hyaluronic acid).
  • Deep — affects the entire thickness of the skin to renew its cellular structure and connective-tissue skeleton.



  • cause intense update of the top layer of the skin;
  • cleaning of the orifices of the sebaceous glands of the overlying dead skin cells;
  • removing superficial pigmentation and lighten skin;
  • normalization of acid-alkaline balance of the skin;
  • reducing the number of pathogenic bacteria, the growth of which is disturbed in normal skin acidic environment;
  • the decreased production of sebum by the sebaceous glands;
  • elimination of hyperkeratosis and smoothing the skin’s surface;
  • loosening the surface layer of the epidermis to facilitate mechanical cleansing and facilitate the penetration of active ingredients of cosmetics into deep skin layers.

Superficial — involves only the upper layers of the skin. This means that it does not affect the underlying processes of the skin type:

  • a significant upgrade of cellular composition (rejuvenation);
  • revitalization of fibroblasts and stimulate the production of collagen and elastin (lifting effect);
  • active stimulation of melanocytes – the cells responsible for the appearance of pigmentation.

For rejuvenation of a superficial peel often give the result of exfoliation, after which the skin is different reflecting the light due to the greater smoothness.

For the whitening effect and lighten pigmentation spots again give the result of exfoliation, after which the skin becomes much lighter before the first sun exposure.

Video: dry skin brushing

Who is

Useful to three categories of clients of a cosmetologist:

  • teenagers and young people with oily sensitive skin, acne, acne and post-acne;
  • people aged 25-35 years to improve skin appearance and correct cosmetic defects;
  • people older than 35-40 years to prepare for the median peeling.

Suitable for dry skin not just a chemical peel. The best solution in this case will milk or almond and a rich moisturizing post-peeling period.


Competition among cosmetologists have resulted in medium peels do now almost 18 years old. Practice is inherently flawed since 35-40 years use makes no sense.

At this age the skin itself copes with the production of collagen and elastin, hyaluronic acid. Because much more important to find the right care and to connect such cosmetic procedures as facial massage, microcurrent therapy and cryotherapy, or other physiotherapeutic techniques.

Made without considering the evidence and the age of such cleaning, in most cases, leads to disappointment of the client, which before the procedure is reliable information gets the hype and the reviews about the inefficiency, futility, and sometimes its harmfulness.


  • active cell renewal of the upper layers of the skin, thickening of skin, smoothing its surface;
  • stimulation of the work of the fibroblasts, increasing collagen and elastin to the level as it was in youthful skin;
  • effect on blood vessels, strengthen the vascular wall, improve blood circulation in the skin;
  • the decrease in the number of melanocytes, inhibition of the synthesis of melanin.

He works deeper than the surface, but are not able to completely update the frame of collagen and elastin fibres, to give rise to significant rejuvenation of the skin in its entire thickness. Therefore can not completely relieve the customer from scarring on the face, stretch marks.

Skin blemishes can be smoothed by smoothing their contours, but the complete disappearance of defects, it can be difficult to.

Some cosmetologists go on to cause defects during the procedure, more concentrated solutions of acids or kept them longer than they should according to the Protocol.

In some cases, it is painless for the client, and sometimes leaves scars or patches of smooth skin totally devoid of pigment that differs sharply in color from the surrounding healthy skin.

Deep peeling

During this procedure, the skin burned to a mesh layer of the dermis. Is carried out only in medical centers under General anesthesia and in the presence of the anaesthetist and requires a long recovery period.

If you’ve done without anesthesia and the same day go home with a jar of cream is similar to vaseline, then you are just misled and made you a median peeling on the price deep.

The ability to endure pain plays no role in whether to deep peeling procedure under anesthesia or not. This is the same as to decide whether to do the epidural before the operation for appendicitis.

Another distinctive feature is the long recovery period, which normally takes from six months to 10 months. If poslushalas week or two, and got a smooth face, then this is not a deep peel, and median.

The purpose of deep cleaning is:

  • the complete destruction and replacement of worn frame of the skin of collagen and elastin fibers;
  • intensification of production of hyaluronic acid to maintain normal level of hydration from the inside;
  • a radical renewal of the cellular composition of the skin.

This procedure is performed no earlier than 55 years.

Active substances for the preparation of solutions or gels


This group of substances also known as AHA or alpha hydroxy acids. These include malic, glycolic, tartaric, lactic and citric acid. All fruit acids are water soluble.

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General properties of ANA-acids are:

  • the ability to destroy the intercellular cement and accelerate the exfoliation of the Horny layer of the skin, clear the mouth of the sebaceous glands;
  • mediated stimulation of hydration of the skin by increasing the content of the functionally-active natural moisturizing factor;
  • the ability to cause long-term use changes in the structure of the skin in which the epidermis becomes thinner and the dermis thickens;
  • the ability to protect skin cells from free radicals, i.e., to provide an antioxidant effect;
  • reduced severity of inflammatory skin reaction in response to any external influence, eliminating redness;
  • toxic effects on bacteria and fungi that can cause disease.

Beta-hydroxy acids

They BHA acids. Have one fundamental difference from fruit acids: they are poorly soluble in water, but well soluble in fats.

In addition to the above properties of beta hydroxy acids to purposefully influence the activity of the sebaceous glands and their secretion. Under the influence of BHA-acids sebum becomes more fluid, which is an excellent prevention of the formation of acne, acne and closed comedones.

Beta hydroxy acid refers to salicylic acid.

Azelaic, kojic, retinoic

In addition to the properties typical of the hydroxy acid has the ability to reduce the activity of abnormal melanocyte that cause the appearance of foci of pigmentation and melasma. Block the activity of the enzyme tyrosinase, which is involved in the production of melanin.

This treatment is recommended to clients with rosacea with rosacea.

  • Pyruvic acid.
  • Trichloroacetic acid.
  • Mandelic acid.


All peels have serious contraindications that are largely the same for both surface and deep.

Video: Surface cleaning on glycolic acid

The sun

Any chemical peels increase the skin’s sensitivity to sunlight. Now actively discussing the possibility of implementation in the period of active sun and even trips to the seaside, where the sun mercilessly bakes at all, and the main pastime is visiting the beach.

In those countries where it is summer all year round, peels also perform year-round. But with the condition of mandatory use of sunscreen to protection factor SPF not lower than 50. Different peels will be different and the period of time when the skin needs sun protection. Surface-2-3 weeks, for TCA this year since the procedure.

Given the unreliability of some of its customers, who can forget about sun protection, many cosmetologists are not at risk to carry out peels in the spring and summer, then to not listen to the accusations and allegations that after peeling appeared pigmentation.

And why put yourself at risk of pigmentation and accelerate skin photoaging, when there is a great opportunity to do peels autumn and winter?

Fungal, bacterial, viral diseases

If fungal and bacterial infections is clear, the manifestations of viral infection and risks associated with it, clients often underestimated. Loosening of the epidermis and trauma of such skin manifestations of viral infections such as papilloma, warts, herpes puzyrky, elements of molluscum contagiosum can lead to a significant spread of the virus.

For example, one small wart on the skin of the wrist after a chemical peel of the hands may give more than a dozen new warts in a short time.

  • Poor tolerance of treatments and microdermabrasion in the past.
  • The presence of hypertrophic or keloid scars.

The growth of connective tissue at the site of skin injury is a contraindication for their conduct, so as not to provoke the appearance of scars and scar in place ripoffs client crusts.

The presence of deep pigmentation traumatic or postvospalitelnoe

The contraindication is not absolute. With the right approach almost any pigmentation possible to significantly lighten a meaningful selection of products for cleaning and means for home care.

But if the beautician of no choice of means, and no experience with peels of various compositions, it may be more harm than good.

The tendency to allergic reactions

Usually those clients who are prone to allergic reactions, noted by a greater degree of swelling and redness after the procedure. Therefore, it is desirable to have on hand an antihistamine.

Pregnancy and breastfeeding breast

Hormones during pregnancy is that the result of peeling can be unpredictable. Plus the tendency of pregnant women to pigmentation. Plus the toxicity of certain drugs for peeling for the mother and fetus. When breastfeeding, the peels are not recommended both because of hormones and because of the ability of drugs to peeling and toxic tissue breakdown products pass through the skin and into the bloodstream.

A small dose of harmful substances will not hurt an adult with a healthy liver and kidneys but can harm the newborn, which can get together with mother’s milk.

  • Diseases of the endocrine system, particularly the thyroid gland.
  • Diabetes mellitus in decompensation stage.

Refers to this stage of diabetes, when it starts blood vessels damage and decreased immunity. In this case, any minor injury can cause a severe purulent inflammation, which can go to the subcutaneous fat.

The presence of cancer

Everything is so serious that it is undesirable to hold even in the presence of moles on the skin at the site of the peels, as they are influenced by the damaging effects of acid can give a malignant growth.

Violation of skin integrity at the venue

Where there are wounds, cuts, penetration of the acid into the skin is deeper and there is a possibility of the development of deep local burns.

Retinoids topically or inside

If retinoids are applied topically, after their abolition should take at least a month. When taking retinoids orally (the same Roaccutane) the interval between the end of reception and the beginning of the peels should be at least six months.

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Dermatosis, psoriasis, atopic dermatitis

Not absolute contraindications. But to assign the peels in such cases, it may only dermatologist.

  • Diseases of the internal organs of acute or exacerbation of chronic.
  • Decompensated diseases of the cardiovascular system.

Here to the fore all diseases accompanied by disturbance of heart rhythm. especially careful should be those who have a pacemaker.

  • Diagnosis of epilepsy, recurring seizures seizures in the past, increased convulsive readiness.
  • Tuberculosis of any localization.
  • The recent plastic surgery on her face.
  • Fresh tan.
  • Rosacea, rosacea.

Presence of dilated blood vessels is a contraindication for most peels in addition to azelaic.


Demodex is a skin mite that lives in the mouths of the sebaceous glands of man. Normal reproduction is suppressed by the immune system of a person.

If starts to happen unchecked, the mites clog the hair follicles, and with them the mouth of the sebaceous glands and contribute to the emergence of copious pustular rash.

In the photo you can see that this hair follicle, from which protrude the «tails» of demodexes.

Chemical peels can be one of the factors miscontrolling reproduction of mites, because before the procedure it is advisable to make sure. you don’t have.

Conduct microdermabrasion, or any laser treatments before 1 month before the peeling procedure.

Video: Chemical surface cleaning


Any chemical peel requires careful preparation of the skin to the action of acids. Without a full pre-peeling treatment, the effect is reduced and increases the likelihood of adverse effects. Usually two to three weeks before the procedure is carried out mechanical cleaning of the face. All, without exception peels is mandatory the use of professional cleansers and creams with weak concentrations of acids.

In their composition usually includes or any of the fruit acids, or salicylic acid. Less frequently used tools azelaic acid. Contains acids in household cosmetic products are usually from 6 to 10 percent. Home remedies to prepare for cleaning shall be appointed not earlier than 2-3 weeks prior to the procedure.

Simultaneously with the beginning of the use of home remedies with acids, it is necessary to conceive to protect the skin from the sun. Even such a small concentration of acid (6-10%) increases the sensitivity of skin to sunlight by 50%.

Also needs to stop tanning and Solarium. For those who have a recent episode of acute herpes (also often called «cold on the lips») was informed 6 months before the procedure, you need 3-4 days to start taking antiviral drugs. Prior treatments median chemical peeling is necessarily performed 2-3 procedures surface cleaning after the preparation of skin products for home use.

Video: dry cleaning at home

The consequences

Redness of the skin

Is not always the case at a superficial peels and is mandatory in the middle. Usually accompanied by edema of varying severity.


The characteristic that most customers incorrectly evaluate the effectiveness of the procedure. Peeling can be so weak that the small scales are simply washed off with water during washing. Or more noticeable when going thin films of skin. It is in the case of superficial peels.

Peeling of layers of skin and crusts are consequences of the median peeling, when not only burns off the top layer of skin and fibrin film forms, usually having a brownish color.

A feeling of tightness of the skin

After superficial peels, the feeling of tightness can be caused by drying effects of peeling, especially when applied to the skin alcohol-based product for exfoliation. A feeling of tightness after a medium peel to a greater extent due to the formation of fibrin film.

Side effects

The absence of the expected effect

The most common complaint of those who agreed to the procedure without evidence. To do median exfoliation to the pores on the face pulled is not serious.

As a result, or rather lack of result, can you get those customers who decide to save on the preparation of pre-peeling and post-peeling care.

The development of an uncontrolled burn of the skin

Usually an uncontrolled burn is or the result of violations of technology of the procedure, when a more pronounced effect applied extra layers of drug, or minimize the importance of the contraindications. This could be after dermabrasion or laser peeling when the acid is applied on the skin, which has not had time to recover from the first trauma.

It can be with the skin damage the sun or the radiation of the lamps in the tanning bed. Can also be a manifestation of individual skin sensitivity to acid. But these are isolated cases.


This is the most common complication of exfoliation. And sometimes it’s like after the surface and after the midpoint. In many respects the appearance of pigmentation to blame the patients themselves, who do not use sunscreen or do the procedure before you travel to tropical countries. But there is a category of patients whose pigmentation develops independently from the sun. It may be traumatic or post-inflammatory pigmentation, prevention of which has not yet been developed.

The appearance of pustular rash

Many clients notice that they got pimples after the peel. Usually the rash appears during the first weeks after the procedure. Many cosmetologists don’t believe this skin reaction complication, because the rash typically resolves on its own without treatment, or requires a mechanical cleaning.

Often there are those who ignore the doctor’s recommendations for rehabilitation period: change of bed linen on the first night after the procedure, the rejection of sports, sauna, swimming pool, special products with anti-inflammatory and antibacterial components in the composition.

The formation of scars.

Might be the case that:

  • the customer tears off the scabs, which are formed after peeling;
  • beautician has applied a locally much higher concentration of acid or increased residence time of the drug on the skin, to eliminate defects;
  • happened the cracking of the fibrin film in the first day or two after its formation, it was therefore disrupted the formation of new skin.
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The lack of peeling after complete cure of acne.

Peels improve skin condition, reduce the number of lesions. But to cure acne normally fails, as it occurs often guilty of domestic mechanisms, in which acids act did not.

In the presence of acne, a number of cosmetic companies producing drugs for peeling, designed for home use special tools from acne, which are applied both before and after the peeling procedure.

The range of Alpha complex, holy land, for example, there is even a special lotion for dissolution closed comedones, once again not to injure the skin by mechanical cleaning.

Severe dry skin

May be after any cleaning, but most often occurs after retinol and TCA. Because sometimes to prevent dryness of the skin, beauticians recommend to take a course of mesotherapy or biorevitalisation, in order to facilitate the recovery process of the skin.

The appearance demarcation line

A defect that occurs only after medium and deep peelings. It looks like a clear boundary between the updated skin is exposed to acid and old skin peeling where the medicine is not applied. It is because all of the preparations for the median peeling apply to the skin and the skin around the eyes.

Rehabilitation and recovery

Care during the recovery period of the skin is almost identical for surface and median peeling. It consists in the use of sunscreens, use of drugs that enhance healing, providing antimicrobial action.

Usually tips on caring for skin post-peel period gives the cosmetologist who performed the procedure. Skin care after a chemical is usually simple.

On the second or third day, you can wash with water or neutral cosmetic cleanser. For the duration of the peeling is better to take beauty serum and ampoule concentrates are water-based. After peeling you can switch to using their usual cosmetics.

During the rehabilitation period is not recommended:

  • sunbathing and spending time in the sun;
  • access to the pool, sauna, steam room, Solarium;
  • tear off the crust;
  • to carry out any treatments for the face, except for intense exfoliation and hydration of the skin in the salon.


Procedure The cost in rubles
peeling of Gessner from 2200
glycolic peel 50-70% from 2500-3500
salicylic peels from 2000
almond peeling from 3000-4000
TCA 15% from 5500
TCA 25% 5700
retinoidy peeling 5% from 5500

How often can I do

Surface are usually carried out in intervals of 7-10 days. They can be done in a course of 6-10 procedures.

Median of different manufacturers are very different in the intensity of exposure to the skin, because each firm supplies its products with detailed instructions and protocols which prescribed the maximum number of treatments per course and the optimal intervals between sessions.

The before and after photos chemical peels


Marinka: I Dreamed about peeling, after watching the beautiful images before and after the procedure. Eventually bought in the pharmacy for such products with AHA acids. Their actions I have been more than enough. Because with the application of concentrated acids on the skin wait.

Lena: I already can not imagine life without peels. Although touches me ladies that I remember about peels closer to the summer. Already got pigmentation where the sun without sunscreen, don’t appear.

Svetikhin: last year, did a course of salicylic peels, this winter did a course. Plus cosmetics the home of the professional series. Effect I really like. Without peels, I much result from the use of professional creams-serums are not particularly noticed. And the peeling, it seems, creates the skin’s need for nutrients and improves the penetration of «Goodies» in depth.

Svetikhin: Marinka, well, if no skin problems especially not, then peels it can afford to wait. But if acne-oily skin, it is currently possible to do for the winter is closer.

Mamamary: Lena, in vain laugh at those who remembers himself at the last moment. I, too, about the peels began to think, towards the end, when there was at least a little free time. While pregnant it is impossible. While feeding, winter is over. Now whether to wait for winter, whether to do right now. Just I did not get to sit at home: go to the store, on the street (sometimes twice a day). Oh, I have been reading fears. Probably will still have to wait for winter.

Jeanne: Yes, Yes, Yes. Svetikhin rights. About the figure, we recall in the best case for a month or two before swimsuit season. Then pass to the gym don’t documerica. About face shortly before some significant event. Because it turns out that about peels recalls closer to the summer, to release.