Dry skin causes the whole body, hands, elbows, feet, face

Dry skin is a common enough problem to get rid of that difficult. Sebaceous glands produce fat going to grease the surface of the dermis. When mixed with the lipids of the epidermis is formed sebum, preventing the stratum corneum from cracking and drying out.

By cementing the cracks between plates of a Horny substance it enhances the waterproof properties of the dermis, it forms an acidic environment negatively acting on pathogenic microorganisms.

Signs

To identify dry skin by the following criteria:

  • young people are the skin is matte and smooth;
  • with age it becomes rough and loses elasticity;
  • wrong care the skin peel and become like parchment;
  • prone to wrinkles, they appear in the neck, chin and around the eyes;
  • after bathing it is pulled without the use of moisturizers a discomfort;
  • under the influence of adverse factors, it quickly flakes, covered with cracks and red spots.

The effect of sunlight on the dermis

Moderate sun exposure has a positive effect on the body, increasing the production of vitamin D, enhancing immunity and stimulating the production of melanin (a natural pigment which protects the dermis from ultraviolet radiation).

Prolonged exposure to the sun’s ultraviolet rays damage the dermis on a cellular level.

Under their influence the collagen fibers are destroyed, which is the cause of premature aging of the dermis, loss of elasticity and tone and the appearance of wrinkles.

Prolonged exposure to the sun the dermis becomes dry, loses its elasticity.

Ultraviolet rays can trigger the appearance of:

  1. age spots,
  2. sunburn,
  3. melanoma.

The extreme degree of negative impact on the dermis of the UV light, you can observe the inhabitants of southern countries, which have a long time to work, turning to the sun only one side. Such people have one half of the face looks much older than the other.

Causes of dry skin

Causes of dry skin of the whole body not only chronic diseases, but if you choose the wrong cosmetics, poor nutrition, and weather conditions.

Household chemicals

Chemicals that are used daily in the home can cause dryness of the skin because their composition contains a large amount of harmful substances such as:

  • phosphates;
  • chlorine;
  • surface-active substances.

These substances quickly dissolves in the fat layer of the dermis which protects it from moisture loss. The most common cause of skin dryness are hand dishwashing detergent. To avoid this problem, households need to use gloves.

Cosmetics

Not all components included in its composition have a positive effect on the dermis.

Make it dry can the following substances, dissolving the fat layer of the skin:

  • ethyl alcohol.
  • citrus essential oils;
  • funds on the basis of peppermint, eucalyptus, menthol;
  • glycerin.

Cream

When buying creams, special attention should be paid to their composition. Some substances, which in normal conditions has a positive effect on derai retain moisture, can have the opposite effect.

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Such tools include:

  • paraffin;
  • glycerin;
  • the hyaluronic acid.

If the person is a long time in the indoor humidity in which less than 70%, these substances remove moisture from the deep layers of the dermis, and it evaporates quickly.

When re-applying the product, at first there is a dampening effect, but in the future all over again.

The more often you apply these creams, especially be dry skin.

Almost all of the creams differ in the percentage of water and fat.

In order that the tool was smooth and was kept for a long time used auxiliary components:

  • emulsifiers (don’t give the cream to flake);
  • essential oils and fragrances (give cosmetics the smell);
  • softeners (and making the structure easy);
  • preservatives (prolong the storage time);

All these substances can destroy the lipid film, depriving the skin of natural protection. To avoid these problems, you need to choose a quality certified cosmetics.

Water

A major role in the exposure of the skin is temperature of water for washing:

  • the cold water causes transient vasoconstriction that violates the blood circulation and reduces sebum that prolonged use increases the dryness of the dermis;
  • if cleanser often to use hot water there is a dilation of superficial blood vessels and causes a weakening of their walls. This leads to violation of the tone of the skin and early appearance of wrinkles.

The ideal water for washing should be at room temperature.

Another negative factor influencing the dry, is water hardness. In order to soften it to boil, add baking soda or lemon juice.

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Lack of water in the body

The average person loses in a day and a half liters of water. This occurs during perspiration, respiration, is excreted in the feces and urine.

If the stock fluids are not restored, the body takes it from the internal organs.

About the lack of fluid in the body first signals the dry dermis and hair.

To prevent this you must drink at least half liter of water per day.

Sea water or bath salt

Despite the use of sea salt water she directly or indirectly may cause excessive dryness of the skin:

  • after bathing in the sea, small droplets of water remain on the dermis, working as small lenses that concentrate the sun’s rays. Because of this, the skin is dry. Therefore, people need to use the towels;
  • the amount of salt added to the bath for bathing should be limited because the particles absorb moisture thereby drying the dermis;

In order to avoid excess dryness to the skin 2-3 hours after swimming in salt water you need to take a shower.

Water from the tap

In order to tap water can be used for hygiene and cooking it is cleaned using special chemicals, which include chlorine.

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These substances have a negative impact on the dermis and neutralize the fatty protective film, causing increased dryness of the dermis.

Pool

People visiting the pool are often faced with increased dryness of the dermis on the body and legs. The reason for this becomes the reagents which are used for water purification.

Disinfection is achieved by adding different chemical compounds (bromination, chlorination, ozonation, the introduction of oxygen-containing products).

These substances destroy the protective layer of the skin and cause dryness.

Disease

Cause excessive dryness of the dermis can become chronic diseases:

  • neuropsychiatric disorders (bulimia, anorexia, stress);
  • violations of hormonal and metabolic (diabetes, hypothyroidism, menopause);
  • dystrophy;
  • kidney failure;
  • diseases of the gastrointestinal tract (cholecystitis, pancreatitis, gastritis);
  • infectious diseases that cause dehydration (salmonellosis, dysentery, cholera);
  • beriberi;
  • allergic diseases;
  • dermatological diseases (psoriasis, dermatitis, lichen, ichthyosis).

Medicines

The following drugs can cause this problem:

  • diuretics (diuretics). They cause increased urination, and the body rapidly loses fluid;
  • laxatives. Able to accumulate and retain water in the intestine. If insufficient intake of fluid can cause excessive dryness of the dermis;
  • oral contraceptives. The change in hormones affects the sebaceous glands, which causes an insufficient production of sebum;
  • atropisomers substances;
  • corticosteroids;
  • alcohol tinctures for external use;
  • ointments containing zinc, salicylic, or boric acid.

The air

Problems with the dermis can occur, if the person is a long time in rooms with dry air. The poet most often people pay attention to excessive dryness of the skin with the beginning of the heating season.

Optimal indoor humidity to 60% and in winter up to 45%. If you do not regularly ventilate the room to use the heater, the rate can be lowered to 15%.

In this case, moisture from the dermis, evaporates quickly, the fat layer on its surface is destroyed and is peeling.

Too dry air in the apartment in the first place react eyes, tears that hydrate them, they begin to evaporate which causes irritation, discomfort, blurred vision. Also the skin on elbows and heels.

In summer, the cause of dry dermis can be air-conditioned. Budget version this device is able to remove from the premises up to 2 liters of fluid per hour.

In order to maintain optimum indoor humidity is to purchase a humidifier and often ventilate the area.

Frost

Cold air can act as a tonic. But a long stay in the cold leads to the fact that the dermis becomes dry and scaly.

The reason for that is the contraction of the superficial blood vessels under the influence of cold. This allows the body to reduce heat loss and increase the blood flow to internal organs.

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As a result of violations of blood circulation occurs oxygen starvation. And prolonged exposure to cold may freeze epidermis as it is heated by the choroid plexus.

If the person is a long time in the cold, the blood vessels are periodically narrowed and expanded, after a certain period of time, so on the cheeks appears blush.

In order to prevent desiccation under the influence of cold air applied cosmetics.

You need to carefully consider their choice:

  • before the frost it is not necessary to use creams for intensive hydration of the dermis. They trap water in the superficial layers of the dermis, which can cause frostbite;
  • under a protective layer of fatty skin cream also cool down quickly, it appears to me that the longer it retains heat, so for a long time people can be in the cold, which leads to flaking and frostbite;
  • when applying emulsion creams, within half an hour of them evaporates the water, which leads to a sharp supercooling of the dermis. Therefore, in no case should be applied before going outdoors;
  • to less dangerous creams are those containing glycols (butyleneglycol, propilenglikol), their freezing temperature lower than water.

Another cause of dry dermis in the winter is a combination of frost, wind and snow crystals. They affect the superficial sensory nerve endings and cause irritation.

Smoking

Dry dermis is a problem of most smokers.

There are several reasons for this:

  • nicotine and other chemical compounds that enter the body from cigarettes narrow the blood vessels, impairing circulation and causing oxygen starvation of the dermis. As a result, the dermis loses nutrients and vitamins, becomes dry, wrinkled and loses its tone;
  • tobacco smoke destroys elastin and collagen, resulting in loss of elasticity;
  • chemicals that are released when Smoking, are deposited in the dermis of the face, clog pores, which often leads to blackheads.

Who to contact

If dry skin is a cosmetic defect, for its elimination it is necessary to turn to the beautician. In that case, if symptoms worsen, rash or irritation, you should visit a dermatologist.

Photo: Before and after treatment

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