How operation blepharoplasty — how to make, photos
What it is
Blepharoplasty – surgery, aimed at correcting the appearance of the eyelids and the eye area through removal of excess skin, removal or redistribution of subcutaneous fat, and the tightening of the circular muscles of the eye.
The operation can be performed at any age, there are restrictions only for health reasons.
The main indications:
- the overhang of the skin, lipid (fat) hernia in the area of the eye;
- drooping (ptosis) of the upper eyelids and tear glands in this area;
- wrinkles, skin excess in the lower eyelid;
- «bags» under the eyes, sagging muscles;
- deep nasolacrimal furrow.
The preparatory phase
Before the surgery, the patient must undergo a full medical examination, and in case of contraindications, the operation is not carried out.
The survey includes:
- collection of the full life history about an illness, the current state of the body;
- changes of the eyelids can be caused by a number of diseases that can affect the duration of the recovery period and cause complications. Their doctor must also be deleted;
- determination of visual acuity;
- the study of the function of the oculomotor muscles, the optic nerve;
- determines the tone of the eyelids.
After a thorough examination of the patient is the choice of method of surgical intervention.
The doctor should consider the extent of the amount of operation given the fact that the exterior of the patient must remain harmonious.
Patient less than 21 days before the operation you need to cease taking aspirin and its analogues, to eliminate from the use of alcohol, not to smoke.
Contraindications to surgery are:
- high blood and blood pressure;
- dry eyes;
- severe infectious diseases, diseases of the cardiovascular system, thyroid,
- diabetes, cancer pathology;
- the clotting of blood.
Photo: Before and after surgery
How operation depending on the kind of blepharoplasty
In addition to the plastic upper and lower eyelids, there is also a transconjunctival operation.
Operation blepharoplasty passes by a premeditated scenario, which is determined depending on the kind of surgery.
The operation also is determined by the degree of age-related changes, which include 4 types:
- the first type is the original change of the century, with a small muscular weakness skin, slightly pronounced hernias.
- the second type is in addition to the above changes, there is excessive skin in the eye area, while there is the transition of aging changes in the cheeks.
- the third type changes of tissues around the eyes, fixed the drooping eyebrows, the manifestation of the eyelid-cheek sulcus, deepening of the nasolabial folds, excess skin is significantly expressed.
- the fourth type – the strongly pronounced changes, deep to the lacrimal and the eyelid-cheek furrows, painting bags, the protrusion of the fat, pronounced nasolabial folds, significant excess skin, rounding of the eye due to the lowering of the tonus of the lower eyelid.
For each patient an individual approach in the choice of surgical technique.
For the 35-40 year-old patients are shown to just remove the transconjunctival way excess fat ( if age-related changes of the first type).
Patients are older, with more pronounced changes (2-3 type), most often:
- removes excess skin and sometimes muscle;
- redistributed or removed fat;
- is brow lifting.
Patients with age-related changes of the fourth type shows a lower blepharoplasty along with a facelift midface.
Before the operation, carry out the marking age, while the marking done while the patient lies with open eyes.
During the operation, remove the planned strip of leather, and, if necessary, excised the strip of circular muscle of the eye.
On the operated area applied intradermal sutures.
The lower eyelid incision under the eyelashes (up to 3 mm from the edge), then the incision continues to a distance of 9 mm for the outer corner of the eye.
While excess fat is removed or redistributed in the tear trough. When excision of excess skin of the lower eyelid of the patient must be open eyes, looked up, the skin flap at the same pull.
Excess skin can be cut with muscle. In some cases, superimposed absorbable suture for the muscle, skin – intradermal suture.
Sometimes, in severe sagging of the outer edge of the lower eyelid, ptosis of the lower corners of the eyes, make the face lift the outer edge of the century, and is fixed to the periosteum.
This action prevents eversion of the lower eyelid (the contraction), one of the possible complications of the operation. In total there are about eight methods of correction of the lower eyelid.
Now plastic surgeons practiced innovative method in which the fatty protrusions in the lower eyelids are redistributed, but not removed.
This is done to minimize surgical intervention. In this method, the fabric peeled through the mouth (intraoral blepharoplasty) and fat hernia sutured to the soft tissues.
Time blepharoplasty from half an hour to 2 hours. The operation can be performed in the outpatient setting and in the hospital, where patients are 1-3 days.
This type of blepharoplasty make, as a rule, young people: they have no excess skin.
In the case of the kind of surgery transconjunctival incision on the skin is not done, but is on the inner side of the eyelid (as a result of residue from the operation does not have).
Surgery is indicated in case of excess of fat in the periorbital area, in this case, the fat is redistributed or partially removed.
One of the methods of correction of the state of the upper and lower eyelids is an injectable (non-surgical) blepharoplasty — a new promising method, which gives a pronounced effect of rejuvenation.
— Injection is manufactured by way of introduction under the skin with special substances, smoothing it and making it more elastic.
For injections use different kind of drugs, each of which has its own effects.
We can not say about the nasty complications which can be after blepharoplasty.
These complications are divided into two types:
- early (bleeding, edema, ectropion of the lower eyelid, wound infection);
- late (tearing, failure of sutures, dry keratoconjunctivitis, etc.).
The rehabilitation period
After the eyelid swelling and bruising are kept for about a week. After a few days the sutures are removed, on the line of the seams is glued with a special adhesive.
The plaster should be removed a week after surgery, and after 10 days it is possible to use cosmetics for eyes, to go to work. 45-60 days, the scar becomes invisible.
The speed and ease of rehabilitation after eyelid to a large extent depends on the discipline the patient should be carefully, properly and regularly take care of over the centuries, following the recommendations of the surgeon.
The operated area can become infected, can occur excessive scarring, and worsen the process of healing and cosmetic result, with:
- the failure of the rules of hygiene;
- non-compliance with the mode of use of recommended medications (ointments, etc.);
- mechanical friction;
- contact with the seams.
In addition, the rehabilitation depends on the amount of tissue excised, surgical access, i.e. from equipment operation. Affects the result of the condition of the skin of the eyelids and face, General condition of the body.
During the rehabilitation period (14 to 21 days) to:
- to avoid significant physical exertion;
- to be protected with special creams from the direct rays of the sun need about six months.
Under these rules the cosmetic effect of the operation will be saved.
Observing doctors ‘ recommendations, correctly constantly caring for the eye area, the result of blepharoplasty can save for 10 years, sometimes longer: it has a major impact as a way of life of the patient and the individual characteristics of the organism.
In order to avoid complications, loss of health, money, attitude is very responsible to the choice of the clinic.