Due to their presence, there is a gradual cellular renewal of all organs and tissues and restore organs and tissues after injury.
History of discovery and exploration
The first proved the existence of stem cells Russian scientist Alexander Anisimov. It happened back in 1909. Practical applications of interested scientists much later in 1950. And only in 1970 was the first time transplanted stem cells in patients with leukemia, and this method of treatment has been used all over the world.
At about this time the study of stem cells has been allocated in a separate direction, began to appear in separate laboratories and even research institutes that are developing methods of treatment with progenitor cells. In 2003 appeared the first Russian biotechnology company under the name «Institute of human stem cells», which today is the largest repository of samples of stem cells and also markets its own innovative medicines and high-tech services.
At this stage of development of medicine, scientists were able to obtain stem cells from an egg that in the future, allow infertile couples to have children of their own.
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Where are the progenitor cells
Stem cells can be found in almost any part of the human body. They are necessarily present in any of the tissues of the body. The maximum number in an adult contains in the red bone marrow, less so in peripheral blood, adipose tissue, skin.
Than younger the organism is, the more it contains, the more these cells are active in terms of speed divisions, and the wider range of specialized cells, which each cell was the precursor can give life.
Where do you get the material
The most «delicious» researchers are embryonic stem cells, because the less lived the organism, the more plastic and are biologically active progenitor cells.
But if the cells are animal researchers to obtain is not a problem, any experiments using human embryos is considered unethical.
This even though according to the statistics, approximately every second pregnancy in the modern world end in abortion.
- From umbilical cord blood.
Available in terms of morality and legislative solutions to a number of countries are stem cells from umbilical cord blood, the umbilical cord and placenta.
Currently are entire banks of stem cells isolated from umbilical cord blood, which subsequently can be used to treat a number of diseases and injuries of the body. On a commercial basis, nominal Deposit for your child offer to make parents numerous private banks. One of the arguments against to collect and freeze cord blood is its limited number, which can be obtained in this way.
It is believed that the recovery of hematopoiesis after chemotherapy or radiotherapy unfrozen own stem cells will be the child of a certain age and body mass (50 kg).
But it is not always necessary to recover such a large number of tissues. For recovery, for example, the same cartilage of the knee joint will be sufficient for only a fraction of stored cells.
The same applies to repair of cells damaged pancreas or liver. As the stem cells from one portion of the umbilical cord blood before freezing, divided into several cryovials, then you can always use a small part of the material.
- Obtaining stem cells from an adult.
Not everyone was lucky enough to get your «emergency reserve» of stem cells from umbilical cord blood. Because at this stage developed ways to obtain them from adults.
The main fabrics that may serve as sources, are:
- adipose tissue (taken during liposuction, for example);
- peripheral blood can be taken from the vein);
- red bone marrow.
Adult stem cells obtained from different sources may have some differences related to the loss of cell universality. So, for example, blood cells and bone marrow can give rise mostly to red blood cells. They are called hematopoietic.
And stem cells from adipose tissue is much easier differenziata (reborn) into specialized cells of organs and tissues of the body (cartilage, bones, muscles, etc.). They are called mesenchymal.
Depending on mastabest challenges facing scientists, they may need a different number of such cells. So, for example, are now developing ways to grow from them teeth, obtained from the urine. They were not so much.
But given the fact that the tooth need to grow only once, and life it is significant, then the stem cells he needs a little.
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Banks storage of biological material
Storage of samples are special banks. Depending on the purpose of the storage of material they can be public. They are called banks-registrars. The registers store the stem cells of the nameless donors and may at its discretion provide any material medical or research institutions.
There are also commercial banks that earn money on the storage of samples from individual donors. They can only use their owners for treating themselves or close relatives.
If we talk about the demand for samples, the statistics are as follows:
- in banks-the registrars are in demand every thousandth sample;
- the material stored in private banks, is even less popular.
However, to keep the nominal sample in a private Bank makes sense. The reasons for this are several:
- donor samples cost money, sometimes a lot, and the amount required to purchase sample and delivery in a hospital, often many times greater than the cost of storing the sample for several decades;
- the nominal sample can be used for the treatment of blood relatives;
- it can be assumed that in the future to repair organs and tissues using stem cells are much more often than it does nowadays, because the demand for them will only grow.
Application in medicine
In fact, the only has been studied the direction of their use is a bone marrow transplant as a stage of treatment of leukemias and lymphomas. Some studies on the reconstruction of organs and tissues using stem cells have already reached the stage of carrying out experiments on humans, but on the mass introduction of the practice of physicians.
To obtain a new tissue from stem cells must typically do the following manipulation:
- fence material;
- the release of stem cells;
- the stem cells cultivation on nutrient substrates;
- the creation of conditions for transformation of stem cells into specialized;
- reducing the risks associated with the possibility of malignant transformation of cells derived from the stem;
Isolated stem cells are taken for the experiment of tissues using special devices called separators. There are also various methods of deposition of stem cells, but the performance is largely determined by the qualifications and experience of staff, and there is also a risk of bacterial or fungal contamination of the sample.
Derived stem cells placed in a specially prepared medium that contains lymph or blood serum of newborn calves. On a nutritious substrate they repeatedly divide, their number increases several thousand times. Before to enter into the body, scientists are directing their differentiation in a certain direction, for example, nerve cells, liver cells or pancreatic, cartilaginous plate, etc.
At this stage there is a danger of their degeneration in the tumor. To avoid this, special techniques are developed to reduce the probability of cancer degeneration of cells.
Methods of introducing cells into the body:
- the introduction of cells into the tissue directly in the place where the injury or tissue was damaged as a result of a pathological process (diseases): an introduction to stem hemorrhage in the brain or peripheral nerve damage;
- the introduction of the cells into the bloodstream: so introduce stem cells for treatment of leukemia.
For and against the use of stem cells for rejuvenation
The study and use of media increasingly seen as the way to achieve immortality or at least longevity. Even in the distant 70-ies of stem cells as anti-aging agents were administered to the elderly members of the Politburo of the CPSU.
Now, when there were a number of private biotechnology research centers, some researchers began to carry out anti-aging injections of stem cells to the patient.
This procedure is quite expensive, but the result can not be guaranteed. Agreeing, the client should be aware that it is involved in the experiment, since many aspects of their use has not been studied.
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The most common types of procedures are:
- introduction of stem cells into the dermis (the procedure is somewhat similar to the biorevitalization);
- filling skin defects, adding volume to the tissues (this is more like the use of fillers).
In the second case, using your own fat tissue of the patient stem cells in a mixture with stabilized hyaluronic acid. Experiments on animals showed that this cocktail allows more fatty tissue to settle down and long to keep the volume.
He conducted the first experiments on the people who by this technique removed the wrinkles and held a breast enlargement. However, the data are not sufficient for any of the doctors could repeat this experience for your patient, providing him with a guaranteed result.