Angioscopy: indications, preparation, administration, complications and results
The inspection of the inner surface of the venous and arterial vessels is an important diagnostic technique in certain diseases or after treatment and diagnostic procedures. Such a survey allows angioscope – invasive endoscopic method for the assessment of arteries and veins. In connection with necessity of carrying out such procedures in a medical institution and the complexity of its implementation, angioscope used in clinical practice only in the light of current indications and contraindications. Preliminary clinical examination, the patient’s doctor reduces risk of development of undesirable complications and to improve the efficiency of the whole inspection.
Angioscope vessels – endoscopic procedure is carried out using special equipment in a medical facility. Such a diagnostic method should be performed only by a doctor, specially trained.
Angioscope any vessels assigned only in the case of a patient certain indications for it. It can be:
- Need to assess the effectiveness of interchromatin, which should be removed the inner shell of the arteries.
- Assessment of anastomosis between the two vessels.
- Identification of atherosclerotic plaques and vegetations to the arterial line.
- Suspected hereditary or granulomatous lesions of the walls of the arteries and veins which demand a biopsy with subsequent morphological study of the sample.
- Assessment of the status and functions of the valves in deep and superficial veins.
It is important to evaluate not only the existing indications for the procedure, but also to pay attention to possible contraindications.
Contraindications to the survey are:
- The diameter of the examined vessel is less than the diameter of the available angioscope.
- The anatomical characteristics of arteries and veins is pathological tortuosity, narrowing, etc.
- Acute inflammatory process in the area of the vessel that can lead to spread of infection.
If the patient has no contraindications from the studies is to refuse and to choose the method of analogues associated with other ways of visualizing the state of the vascular structures.
How to prepare?
Special training to angioscopy not required. However, each patient must undergo a consultation with the doctor to assess any risks. Also need a waiver of the medications that can affect vascular wall.
If a scheduled examination is enough large vessels with use of General anesthesia, the patient is not permitted to eat the day of the survey. It is important to pre-interview with the anaesthetist.
Consultation with the vascular surgeon and the anaesthetist must undergo every patient.
To exclude somatic diseases, each patient should have a blood test and urine test, x-ray.
Angioscope vessels is always done in a specialized office, and a doctor, passed additional training. The first stage – using an adequate method of anesthesia, which often is a local. After the anesthesia took effect, the surgeon accesses the target vessel and stops the blood flow in it. The endoscope is gently introduced into the artery or vein, and pushing in the desired direction under strict control. It is very important to prevent rupture of the vessel that can lead to heavy bleeding from it.
If the endoscope has a special manipulation channel, then it can introduce forceps for biopsy, or any other microsurgical instrument for performing the necessary manipulations.
After the survey is completed, the endoscope is removed and the vessel thoroughly sew. Also sutured and soft tissue. Within days after the procedure the patient should remain in hospital for prevention of early and late complications.
If you violate the rules of conduct of angioscopy or improper preparation of the patient, the procedure may be complicated by a number of situations:
- The most frequently observed damage of the vascular wall by careless introduction and promotion of the endoscope. This can lead to the beginning of the covert or overt bleeding and a number of other heavy conditions in the absence of adequate treatment.
- Allergic reaction in form of urticaria, itching and angioedema on the introduction of local anaesthetics.
- In connection with the violation of the integrity of the vascular wall at the place of intervention can begin to be formed microthrombuses and also develop inflammatory changes.
Compliance with the recommendations of the survey allows to prevent negative consequences and to ensure rapid rehabilitation of the patient.
Angioscope receptacles, informative and safe way to assess the condition and function of the venous and arterial structures that can both detect the disease and to evaluate the results of therapeutic and surgical techniques.