Anoscopy: what it is, unlike sigmoidoscopy
Colonoscopy, anoscopy and sigmoidoscopy are the methods of diagnosis and treatment of the lower intestine. At the beginning of the examination of the patient proctologist uses a finger technique. If you have hemorrhoids, this technique enough. But if the inflammatory process occurred in the more remote parts of the rectum requires the use of anoscope. What it is, anoscopy, why, and how it is carried out – on this later in the article.
Unlike anoscope from other methods
Anoscopy is the same basic diagnostic methods, like sigmoidoscopy or colonoscopy. However, between them there are differences:
The examination of the rectum by anoscopy used a special device anoscope. In medical practice there are different types of anoscope, but most is a smooth tube about 12 cm in length and 1 cm in diameter. At one end of this tube is slightly expanded, it departs from the arm, which may be provided with a battery or be connected to a power source.
Inside the tube runs a rod (stylet) that protrudes from it by one centimeter. Modern models of vehicles are illuminated. Such a device gives the opportunity to carefully inspect the inner surface of the colon to introduce a drug take a swab or the material for histological analysis.
Anoscopy can be made of metal or plastic. In the first case, after applying the appliance is subjected to sterilization for subsequent use. Plastic anoscope is a one-time diagnostic tool, it comes in a sterilized sealed packages. And in that and in other case the device is completely safe for the diagnosis of the rectum. Its surface is completely smooth, non-irritating and does not injure the mucous membrane.
If you are videoendoscopy, embedded in a sheath of the optical device allows you to see the inner wall of the rectum on the screen. The record can be saved, and you can fix a particular place in the mucous membrane, and then to take pictures.
In addition to diagnostic visual videosmother, the device is actively used for sampling of material from the walls of the colon and to treat.
Why conduct research?
The results of anoscope are of great importance in the diagnosis of rectal pathologies. Its use gives the possibility of carrying out manipulations with the purpose of:
- to confirm or refute the provisional diagnosis;
- to take a material (a piece of mucosa, smear) for subsequent analysis;
- to enter the medicine;
- to assess the degree of damage to the rectal mucosa;
- to conduct therapeutic procedures.
Such diagnostics allows to detect the occurrence of internal nodes of hemorrhoids, polyps in the early stages of development, symptoms of Crohn’s disease. Also, the procedure provides an opportunity to identify pathology such as fistulas, tumors, fractures, warts.
Only with the help of anoscope may conduct such medical procedures, such as the introduction of medications directly into the site of inflammation. In addition, under videocopies control is carried out such operational interventions, such as sclerotherapy, electrocoagulation and infrared and others.
Indications and contraindications
Because anoscopy is intended to survey the state of the rectum, the indications for its implementation are the following diseases and States:
- the suspected cancer;
- problems with the chair;
- the different discharges (pus, mucus, blood) from the anus;
- pain in the anus, of unknown origin;
- the suspicion of the presence of polyps, warts, and other entities.
The indication for the procedure will also be a need to introduce medicines into the rectum, the need for surgical procedures.
The procedure has no absolute contraindications. If present hemorrhoids, the examination is carried out after elimination of the inflammatory process. Do not anoscopy in the case of narrowing of the lumen of the intestine.
How to prepare for the exam?
To the obtained results, the diagnosis was reliable, you need to clean the bowel using enemas. Recommended to do two enemas, one in the evening and the second morning to the day, which is assigned anoscopy. With the aim of cleansing the colon from the stool you can use special pharmacological means, for example, fortrans or microlax. It is also desirable for 2-3 days before diagnosis to avoid fatty meals and meals which can cause increased formation of gas. To Breakfast before the procedure.
The course of the study
Anoscopy is a simple and painless diagnostic procedure. As a rule, it does not cause the patient extreme discomfort. Its duration is about 20 minutes depending on the purpose.
To the introduction of anoscope was the most natural and painless, the patient should take the appropriate position. There are three location options for the survey:
- with the use of gynecological chair (patient lying on back);
- the patient lies on a couch on your left side, and then brings to his knees;
- the patient kneels, leaning forward while focusing on the elbow joint.
Proctologist lubricates anoscope a special composition to facilitate its introduction, and then introduces the instrument into the rectum is 12 cm and diagnoses.
If anoscope, as a rule, does not require the use of painkillers. However, such manipulations as taking material mucosa for histology and alloying polyps involve the use of anesthesia. It is possible to use local anaesthetics and the introduction of sedative drugs.
In most cases, the procedure is without adverse effects. However, it is possible and the occurrence of complications. Most often it involves taking a piece of mucosa for histological analysis. After the diagnosis in this situation may be rectal bleeding. Another complication is due to the inexperience of the doctor-the proctologist. In the process of manipulation can occur with perforation of the intestine. Therefore it is very important to contact an experienced specialist.
In General, the manipulation is well tolerated, side effects in the form of complications are very rare. So do not be afraid of its implementation.