Bacterioscopy smear: indications, results and their meanings
One of the most common gynecological diagnosis methods is bacterioscopy of the smear. It can be described in various ways: gynecological, or common smear on flora. Taking material from the vagina, urethra and cervix. It holds the gynecologist, and the analysis is within the competence of a specialist laboratory; interpretation of the result is also conducting a gynecologist. The procedure of taking the stroke does not cause pain and is absolutely safe for health. Period, after which the analysis will be ready within two days. In addition, there is the Express option, in which data can be obtained in as little as 15 minutes.
Why do bacterioscopy, indications
The results of the analysis of the smear flora give the doctor information about the condition of the microflora of female genitals. In particular, it can be:
To obtain a complete and accurate picture of the microflora of the genital organs, a woman needs to prepare for the examination. You need to know a few rules.
- Smear on flora is not rent within five days after the onset of menstruation, and five days before its occurrence.
- Directly before putting the bacterioscopic analysis is impossible to carry out reorganization of the genitals.
- The day before taking the contents of the vagina should not be administered in medical drugs, and also to douching with decoction of medicinal plants or other solutions.
- The day before the examination to exclude sexual contacts.
- It is recommended to refrain from urination for about two hours before the procedure.
In a smear, in addition to the elements of the blood, can be detected by both beneficial and pathogenic microorganisms. In this matter not only their appearance, but also quantity. Transcript of smear in women makes the gynecologist.
- The white blood cells. If these elements of blood is not too much (up to 10), then nothing to worry about, such a number is in the normal range. These cells form local immunity, and do not allow to penetrate the genital tract infectious agents. Increased quantity of leucocytes in a smear is evidence of the development of the inflammatory process.
- Epithelial cells of the vaginal walls and cervix. The squamous epithelium is found in a smear taken in the absence of pathological processes. If not, then it says about the problems of hormonal nature (excessive amounts of male hormones if estrogen deficiency). Also this situation may be evidence of atrophy of epithelial cells.
- Sticks. Their presence indicates the presence in the vagina of lactobacilli, which play an important role in the formation of local immunity and maintaining the balance of microorganisms. If a smear contains a small number of Staphylococcus aureus, it is in the normal range. However, its increase indicates the development of inflammation.
- The mycelium of the fungus. If the mycelium or spores of the fungus, such a smear indicates a candidiasis.
- Trichomonas. The identification of these microorganisms is a sign of the developing of trichomoniasis.
- Cocci. The presence of these bacteria tells about the imbalance of the microflora of the mucous membrane.
- Atypical cells. To include atypical epithelial cells of the vaginal wall, United with the stick. When identified, can be diagnosed with a goiter.
Is it possible by examination to detect sexually transmitted diseases (STDs)?
Most often, the smear on bacterioscopy enough to detect diseases that are transmitted sexually. This is due to different reasons. So, if you find a smear of spores or mycelium of the fungus can talk about candidiasis. But this disease can also occur independently as a result of hormonal failure, use of antibiotics and other violations, but also result from sexually transmitted infection.
Viral infection, Ureaplasma, and other microorganisms are so small that they are almost invisible in the microscope. So they have to identify using other diagnostic methods, such as immunoassay or PCR of blood.
Quite often, the results of the examination clearly indicate the presence of an inflammatory process.
However, to identify the pathogen that caused the inflammation, it is not possible. This greatly complicates the assignment of therapeutic agents. To determine the source of infection, conduct a bacteriological culture.
Determination of the degree of purity of the vagina
Based on the obtained laboratory data to establish the degree of purity of the stroke. Just allocate 4 degree.
- The first degree is quite rare. She said the complete balance of microorganisms of the genital tract of women and absolute health.
- Second degree – this is the most common result of smear examinations in women. The results of the analysis of the observed minor changes of the balance of microflora.
- The third degree is a signal of developing inflammation in the genital tract. Thus you observe an increased content of conditionally pathogenic microorganisms, fungal mycelia and spores.
- The fourth degree of the smear is characterized by very high levels of pathogenic bacteria. Strong deviation says about actively occurring infectious process and the microflora imbalance.
In case of detection of deviations from normal levels of microflora in gynecological smear, the gynecologist or diagnoses and assigns the appropriate treatment, or writes a referral for other diagnostic procedures. This is possible when the reason inflammatory process is unclear, or there are additional symptoms of another disease.