Capillaroscopy: indications, conduct, efficiency
Nail bed capillaroscopy – informative and non-invasive (no penetration) method of evaluating the condition of the human circulatory system. At the same time, through the use of a special device, you can set the shape of capillaries, their length and deformation. Typically, this type of research is suitable for evaluating the microcirculation in hypertension, heart failure, diabetes, etc. during capillaroscopy should consult their physician regarding the indications for carrying out the method, and possible failure of the procedure, with its rational.
Capillaroscopy allows to assess the state of the microvasculature of a living person, without any restrictions on the age or concomitant diseases. Most often this method is used, the capillaries of the nail bed, due to their horizontal location and surface localization. This greatly facilitates the whole procedure and allow you to implement it in a short period of time without special preparation of the patient for the study.
It is very important to conduct a study. For this doctor initially talks about the progress of the procedure. For 1-3 minutes, until it is held on the skin of nail fold (usually use the ring finger of the hand), apply a few drops of glycerin or any vegetable oil. Due to this increase achieve homogeneity of the epidermis, which improves the visibility of capillaries. After that, the finger is placed on the retainer stand, and put the lens device to the test section. Visible capillaries sketch on paper or photographed using a special fotoniki.
The study is conducted in a medical institution doctor who, after preliminary training.
There are special projection-drawing devices, allowing you to get a more objective picture of capillary patterns. However, they occur quite rarely.
Normal capillaries have a bright red color, their arrangement in straight lines in several rows. The shape of the pattern depends on the location of the lens of the capillaroscope and, most often presented in the form of studs, a comma or a straight line. The average number of capillaries per one millimeter – 8-10 pieces. When using the method of an experienced physician, the latter may even fix the flow of blood through the capillaries.
The use of capillaroscopy
The use of this method of diagnosis is possible in the following situations:
- Diagnostic procedures aimed at identifying the extent of involvement of the microvasculature during cardiovascular, endocrine, rheumatologic and other diseases.
- Capillaroscopy allows to evaluate the effectiveness of drug therapy, and also to prevent the development of toxic effects from the use of medications.
- Monitoring of microcirculation during surgical intervention can prevent the development of a number of complications associated with a drop in blood pressure, excessive activation of the sympathetic nervous system, etc.
Capillaroscopy has serious advantages widely recommend this method.
The use of capillaroscopy in these situations improves the efficiency of diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. However, this diagnostic method is rarely used singly, but more often is combined with other diagnostic procedures.
Advantages of capillaroscopy
Wide dissemination of this method of research is due to its advantages:
- There is no need to make holes or any other invasive intervention.
- High quality information on the status of the microvasculature.
- Having developed software systems that automate the evaluation of the results.
- The ease of use. Doctors need to learn to work with the device.
However, there are disadvantages. One of the most significant is the failure of this method some doctors.
Evaluation of the results
In evaluating the results of capillaroscopy pay attention to three main parameters: the shape of the capillaries, the nature of the movement of blood on them and the area around the vessels. Changes in these characteristics may indicate existing or emerging diseases.
The results obtained should be kept for comparison with more recent data in the future.
The greatest value of the method is in the diagnosis of diseases associated with impaired blood flow through the vessels, such as Raynaud’s disease, Takayasu’s disease, occlusive disease, atherosclerotic lesions, etc. In these cases we can clearly see the increase in the number of capillaries, their narrowing and deformation. However, with the progression of the disease, the number of capillaries decreases and there their necrotic changes associated with a significant reduction of blood flow.
If the patient has hypertension capillary pattern becomes convoluted, the area around the capillaries fuzzy with signs of thickening of their walls. A similar pattern can be observed in endocrine pathology (diabetes, etc.).
The use of capillaroscopy allows you to easily and quickly diagnose the diseases of the cardiovascular and other systems of the body without using any invasive procedures. In this regard, the method is commonly used in clinical practice. However, before using it you should consult with your doctor on the advisability of the procedure.