Colonoscopy bowel: what it is and how to prepare for it?
Bowel disease occupy a leading position among all diseases of the gastrointestinal tract (according to the latest analysis of morbidity in the world). This is not surprising because of improper lifestyle, unbalanced diet, bad habits, basic ignorance and unwillingness to consult a doctor directly affect the bowel. In this regard, the role of early surveys to identify any abnormalities of the colon. How to make colonoscopy bowel?
What is a colonoscopy?
Modern endoscopes allow us to carry out the procedure with minimal discomfort due to the technology improvements. What is colonoscopy bowel? The procedure is a visual inspection of the mucous membrane of the intestinal tube by means of the special device – fibrocolonoscope (not to be confused with gastro-and colonoscopy).
In Germany this procedure is included in the list of screening, is mandatory for persons over the age of 50 years. Thanks to her in the early stages it is possible to identify such diseases as bowel cancer. In our country, unfortunately, the doctors so often prescribe examination of the colon, and patients are poorly informed about the colonoscopy. This is due to the fear of patients, complex preparation, poor tolerance of. Only in extreme cases, the doctor recommends you to undergo the unpleasant procedure, although the indications for it quite a lot.
Colonoscopic examination is indicated if the patient has:
- Chronic constipation/diarrhea.
- Causeless pain in the abdomen.
- Bleeding from the rectum (in this case, the colonoscopy bowel shows in the first place).
- Unspecified anemia, weight loss.
- Tumors that were detected during the other tests (barium enema, sigmoidoscopy, plain radiography, ultrasound).
- Bowel disease in history.
- Signs of obstruction of the large intestine.
- Bowel disease in close relatives.
- Unauthorized discharge from the rectum (pus, mucus, blood).
Procedure and control treatment as well as for biopsy or operations in the lumen of the colon.
The survey is strictly impossible to carry out:
- All people with acute infections or exacerbation of chronic somatic diseases.
- In serious condition (prolonged bed rest, coma, trauma, strokes and heart attacks).
- With severe cardiopulmonary insufficiency, edema, ascites.
- In patients with suspected peritonitis, severe inflammation in the intestine.
In addition, examination of the bowel with colonoscopy is not carried out in the terminal stage of cancer. Also do not examine the intestine in patients with impaired coagulation.
Pregnant women colonoscopy is performed only on strict indications!
Preparation of the bowel before the examination
What is a colonoscopy and how it is performed? The first stage is preparation. This is an important factor which directly depends on the effectiveness of colonoscopy. Inadequate cleaning from stool, remnants of undigested food leads to poor visibility, inability to evaluate the discovered pathology, take a sample for histological examination. Sometimes poor training connected with the way of life of the patient, reluctance to give up certain foods, take a laxative preparation, and comply with all recommendations of the doctor.
The preparatory phase has 2 things: diet and the colon cleansing the day before your colonoscopy. Testing before it is not required.
It is recommended to prepare 3 days before the test. Patients must adhere to uncindery diet. Need to exclude berries, parsley, dill, fruit and vegetable dishes, grain porridge, black bread. Allowed to consume fish, boiled meat, eggs, black tea, chicken broth, cream of wheat, dairy products except cheese products. On the day of examination in the morning you can drink water or tea. Contraindicated reception of tablets of activated charcoal, as well as drugs with a high iron content.
How is the procedure for the preparation of the colon to the study? Previously was used for the cleansing enema, which is extremely uncomfortable and painful for patients. Now use the French drug Fortrans, which contains macrogol (polyethylene glycol) and trace elements. The drug is not absorbed into the blood, acts directly in the lumen of the large intestine, leading to fluid retention and increased content. By increasing the osmotic pressure in the colon increases its peristalsis and cleansing. Trace elements (potassium, sodium, chlorine) contained in the composition, supporting electrolyte composition of blood.
Doctors recommend to take 2 sachets of Fortrans powder in the evening and the morning of the examination. The drug is dissolved in water, following the instructions. Just need to drink 4 liters of fluid. The chair begins within an hour after ingestion and ends 2-3 hours after the last dose. A survey carried out no earlier than four hours after the last consumed portion of Fortrans.
It is important to note that using the drug can not adhere to a strict diet. However, for the best preparation of the large intestine and enhance the information content of the survey is better not to use prohibited products.
Another common means is Lavacol Russian production. This drug is also dissolved in water (15 sachets in 3 liters of fluid), and slowly drink, sharing the evening and the morning reception. Lavacol worse tolerated than the Fortrans. You may experience nausea, vomiting, bloating. According to some observations to do a colonoscopy after Lavacolla difficult, since the stool remains in the gut.
The methodology of the survey
How is colonoscopy bowel?
Starts colonoscopy with tube insertion through the anus into the rectum. Next:
- The doctor slowly and carefully pushes the instrument in the lumen of the colon rotary motion, eliminating pain and the possibility of trauma to the mucosa.
- If necessary, provide air for better visualization. The survey is conducted in the lying position on your left side.
- In all surveyed lurk around on the couch for a better movement of the colonoscope.
Modern colonoscopes are equipped with high-resolution video camera. This method examined all the creases and areas on display is happening on the screen. In identifying entities, you can get an ultrasound to be structures, to take a tissue biopsy or remove the polyp. The colonoscope is removed similarly, by rotation.
The procedure lasts about 30-40 minutes, maybe longer. Tissue samples sent for histological examination. After a colonoscopy is not required in the diet or a special regime. After it, you can return to your normal lifestyle.
Children up to 12 years the procedure is performed under anesthesia!
Sometimes you need urgent conducting of colonscopia, so the time for training there. In this case it is done with the help of washing mucosa and optics with large amounts of water for improved visibility.
Virtual colonoscopy as a method of examination of the intestine by carrying out imaging it departments is not so long ago. This is a godsend for those patients who for some reason cannot tolerate or simply afraid to undergo conventional colonoscopy. A new examination is recommended for patients who are contraindicated optic endoscopy. The bowel is filled with air or contrast medium, is then made a series of images. The time of the procedure 30 minutes.
The positive aspects of the new method diagnostics:
- There is no need to follow a strict diet.
- You do not need to accept Fortrans (the last data of observations of American specialists).
- The absolute painlessness.
- The efficiency of detecting pathology no worse than a conventional colonoscopy.
- The possibility of a total colonoscopy.
Many patients often ask the doctor and do a colonoscopy? Complications actually occur very rarely, mostly in patients with widespread lesions of the intestinal mucosa (polyps, tumors, metastases, diverticula). Sometimes bleeding that may be associated with biopsy or surgery. Also colonoscopy may be perforation of the colon careless movement or due to stenosis, obstruction. More often pains in the abdomen, in the anus and bloating. All of this takes place 1-2 days later. Even less after examination of the intestine a colonoscopy be infection.
Complications are not only on the part of the intestine. In the elderly, debilitated patients, patients with other underlying medical conditions may occur recurrence or exacerbation of the underlying disease. This happens because of the strong anxiety and fear before and during the procedure. Often, blood pressure rises, there are pains in the heart, quickens the pulse and respiratory rate. In asthmatics, there is a risk of development of an attack of respiratory failure. Sometimes the body temperature rises.
That you find during the colonoscopy?
In normal colon mucosa should be pink, homogeneous and free from foreign entities. Unfortunately, the pathology of the intestine are very common. Diagnose:
- Inflammatory diseases (colitis, sigmoid).
- Diverticula (bulging mucosa).
- Polyps (dangerous in terms of rebirth in cancer).
- Immune diseases (Crohn’s disease, ulcerative colitis).
Conclusion endoscopist gives to the patient after 15-20 minutes after the procedure. The biopsy analysis will be prepared for 1-2 weeks. On the basis of data obtained diagnosed.
The benefits of colonoscopy
Colonoscopy is one of the most accurate and informative in the diagnostics of intestinal diseases for several reasons:
- The possibility of visualization of on the inside when performing this procedure.
- Detecting entities of a small size (1 mm).
- The biopsy and surgical intervention.
- Not only diagnostic but also therapeutic procedure.
Despite the discomfort and soreness colonoscopy, it still remains the most popular and commonly prescribed among physicians of all specialties.