Colonoscopy without anesthesia: preparation, conduct, results
Colonoscopy is an instrumental study of the colon, which the doctor can visually assess the condition of the colon from the inside and take tissue for biopsy. Conduct this study a special device of the optical type – fibrocolonoscope. In many cases this method of examination is only effective with an accurate diagnosis.
Today colonoscopy without anesthesia is very popular in America, and it was included in the list of studies that need to take place every year after the age of 45. Although many people refer to this method with caution.
Fibrocolonoscope looks like a thin tube with a microscopic camera that transmits images to the monitor. The tube of the device is sufficiently flexible, it must be that the camera could go through all the anatomical bends without injuring tissues.
This procedure as diagnosis of diseases is quite effective, since the physician has the opportunity to take pictures of the affected areas. Most often performed colonoscopy without anesthesia. The doctor only treats gel anesthetic anus that the patient felt no discomfort and sometimes makes the anesthetic injection or sedation. To conduct a colonoscopy under General anesthesia is recommended only to certain categories of patients.
During colonoscopy, the doctor can assess the condition of about 1.5 m of intestine. At the same time evaluated as follows:
- The color of the mucosa and vascular pattern.
- The presence of inflammation of the intestinal wall.
- The diameter of the lumen of the intestine.
Also, the doctor can diagnose the presence of hemorrhoids and microcracks. Hemorrhoids with colonoscopy can determine the size of the nodes and is there a way to remove them.
The positive aspect of the study of the intestine is the ability to diagnose cancer lesions at an early stage.
Colonoscopy is indicated for patients who have certain symptoms. This study is necessary to confirm the preliminary diagnosis made by the attending physician.
- The admixture of blood and mucus in the stool.
- The black stool.
- Systematic diarrhea.
- Pain in the abdomen, which became chronic.
- The rapid weight loss that is not explained.
In addition, colonoscopy is indicated if the x-rays revealed any deviations or pathological condition. Also required is a study for those who have family there have been cases of oncological lesions of the colon.
More mandatory indication for colonoscopy is the presence of a foreign body in the gut.
Colonoscopy may be contraindicated in patients. Namely, those who have history there:
- cardiac and pulmonary failure;
- peptic ulcer disease;
It is also not recommended to carry out this study, people with abnormalities of blood clotting, and if the body is the infectious process in the acute stage.
Contraindications to colonoscopy, if colon:
- multiple lesions malignant tumors;
- a mass lesion spikes.
Children under 12 years are not prescribed a colonoscopy without anesthesia.
In such cases, instead of conducting a study colonoscopy – sigmoidoscopy. But after the patient undergoes the appropriate treatment and the above pathological condition will pass, can be carried out and a colonoscopy.
Preparation and methodology
To colonoscopy only after careful preparation of the body. Before its implementation the doctor will prescribe a special diet. The patient should take her 3-4 days. This food is strictly excluded from the diet:
- Vegetables, fruits and berries in raw form.
- Black bread.
- Spinach and sorrel.
- Canned and pickled products.
- Cereals – barley, oats, wheat.
- Drinks – coffee, milk, alcohol, carbonated beverages.
Mandatory measure for colonoscopy is the colon cleanse. It is carried out in several stages. The day before the study the patient must take a laxative preparation. Next you need to do some cleansing enemas. This introduces a 1,5-2 liters of water every 2 hours. The evening before the colonoscopy, you need to do 3 enemas in the morning, and directly before the study – also 2-3 enemas.
In the evening and in the morning should not eat solid food. It is better that it was a liquid broth or sweet tea.
Technique colonoscopy without anesthesia simple. The patient is still given a special drug that relaxes. The patient lies on side with knees bent. Next, the doctor inserts the tube of the colonoscope in the bowel, and to begin with the colon inflated, to advance the tube through the intestines. The doctor running the study evaluates the condition of the large intestine from the inside, and the pathological area photographs.
During the procedure, the person will feel discomfort or light pain. It depends on the individual body, namely, pain threshold and the structure of the intestine. The procedure lasts about 30 minutes, but it increases with time, if there are any tumors, and requires sampling of biological material for the biopsy.
After colonoscopy complications can occur. Statistics show that the manifestation of any complicated conditions occurs very rarely. These include:
- Perforation of the intestinal wall – this complication occurs in 1% of patients.
- Bleeding in the intestine. Most often it occurs when a biopsy or removal of polyps, but usually it is not heavy and speed independently.
- Pain, localized in the abdomen.
- Raising the temperature to 37,5°C. This increase may be for 3 days. In most cases, this occurs after removal of polyps in the gut, and has no danger to human life.
Doctors say that after a colonoscopy should seek medical help if you have disturbing symptoms. Namely, frequent dizziness, weakness and reduced efficiency, the system abdominal pain. Also the person should immediately consult a doctor if vomiting and nausea, appearance of blood when urinating. A pathological condition is considered to be elevated body temperature values above 38°C.
Results and transcripts
The normal color of the mucosa is considered the pale yellow or pale pink. Any pathological conditions and inflammatory processes from changing the color of the mucous membrane. Unchanged mucosa reflects light, which means that produces enough mucus for the proper functioning of the intestine. Intestinal the pathologies of the mucous membrane becomes dull.
The wall of the colon normal smooth, with light outlines. In addition, it should not be ulcers, tubercles, etc. Vascular pattern is an important indicator, it should be evenly placed on the whole surface of the bowel wall. Areas with excessive strengthening of vascular pattern, or its absence is considered pathological.
The decryption of the obtained results makes the one who conducted the study. Assessment of intestinal walls is carried out on indicators such as color, luster, vascular pattern and character of the surface of the intestine.
Alternative examination colonoscopy is considered the capsule examination. The capsule camera is swallowed by the patient, and leaves it in a natural way. The capsule passes through the digestive tract. But despite this, doctors do not always get a complete picture of the pathology and to confirm the need to still carry out a colonoscopy.
The testimonials of patients and doctors
The patients ‘ views differ, it all depends on what the person’s pain threshold. Some say that the procedure is very painful, while others experience discomfort and no more. Doctors also noted the high effectiveness of this study as a diagnostic procedure. Thanks colonoscopy can prevent the development of many serious diseases.