Cystoscopy bladder in women: how to do, hurt you?
Cystoscopy of the bladder in women is not only important, but also the most common method of endoscopic diagnosis of pathologies of the urinary system, which according to various estimates, subject to 10 to 30% of people regardless of age. However, female gender is suffering from urological diseases more often than men and boys. In women the urethra is much shorter and therefore the bladder is more «affordable» for infectious lesions.
Due to this physiological difference cystoscopy in women does not require special training and is carried out mainly through the urethral analgesia with local anesthetics. This procedure in the male sex is too painful and therefore requires immersion in superficial medication sleep or under General anesthesia.
That shows how they spend and what is cystoscopy? This procedure may be assigned for diagnostic purposes. Then the urologist can visually assess the condition of the walls of the urethra, the bladder, the mouth of the ureters, to carry out the catheterization of the ureters and also to take small pieces of tissue for biopsy. However, by using fibrocolonoscopy may conduct and therapeutic procedures: removal of small polyps, obstructions, tumors, bleeding, fragmentation and removal of stones, the introduction of drugs.
When shown zitostaticescoe diagnostic tests?
Diagnostic cystoscopy of the urethra and bladder in women is conducted in the following cases:
- in the urine found blood, leukocytes and/or atypical cells;
- chronic pain in the pelvic area;
- frequent urination day and/or night;
- urinary incontinence;
- pain syndrome during the act of urination, his difficulty;
- recurrent cystitis;
- «neurogenetic» or hyperactivity of the bladder;
- a suspected third-party body, stones, tuberculosis or tumor;
- as a final diagnostic of interstitial cystitis;
- detailed localization and characterization of traumatic injuries to the urethra or bladder.
Pre-op ultrasonography (us) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the bladder is not a reason to abandon cystoscopy.
In some cases, for example, when thickening of the mucous membranes, this inspection is shown for detail diagnosis. In other cases, cystoscopy, not ultrasound or MRI, will allow you to quickly identify the cause of the pathology of the urethra or bladder, because with its help it is possible to obtain a larger array of information.
Contraindications to the examination in women
Like any other invasive instrumental examination cystoscopy of the bladder in women has a number of contraindications. These include:
- Local contraindications are acute cystitis and urethritis.
- General contraindications – myocardial, renal and hepatic failure in stage of decompensation, cardio-vascular disease in elderly patients.
By the way, since the infarction of the heart muscle often occurs painlessly, there is a General recommendation for older people – prior to the cystoscopy should be performed electrocardiogram. Pregnant instead cystoscopy excretory urography is prescribed.
Menstruation is not a contraindication to conduct the cystoscopy, but because during this procedure increases the likelihood of additional infection, the examination is better to postpone the menses days.
Preparations for the diagnosis by the cystoscope
When you assign a cystoscopy in females urologist needs to hold a conversation, which will help him to assess the level psihopatizatsii patient and, perhaps, if she has a high pain threshold. If after this conversation it will be decided to carry out a cystoscopy under partial or full anesthesia, it will be necessary to consult the anesthesiologist, who will perform the anesthesia.
Most girls and women quietly tolerate cystoscopy with local anesthesia. Preparations in advance is not necessary. In such cases, 5 minutes before the start of the procedure, the urethra is injected anesthetic solution or gel. However, it should be remembered that on the day of the cystoscopy, before beginning to eat is strictly prohibited!
If cystoscopy would still be under the surface or General medication sleep, between the last meal and the beginning of the survey, necessary to sustain the interval – a minimum of 8 hours. Remember that after recovery from anesthesia, you cannot drive a car. Try to home you should have with a guide.
Do not abuse the anesthesia! The risk of complications from it are much higher than those of minor discomfort that may occur during a cystoscopy under local anesthesia.
In addition, you should know that the doctor needs to ask about the medications currently used by patient. It is possible that some medications will need to be suspended. For example, it can be: aspirin, selected analgesics, heparin, drugs against arthritis, insulin.
Conducting diagnostic inspection
How do cystoscopy of the bladder in women? Cystoscopy is performed with the help of special tools. The cystoscope may be rigid (fibrocystic) or flexible (endocytosed). Built-in camera and illumination system displays an image of the walls of organs on the screen of the computer monitor, and allows you to fix the resulting photos and videos. They may be useful for further consultation or evaluation of the quality of the subsequent treatment. The choice of the type of cystoscope is within the competence of the urologist.
Procedure cystoscopy is performed in the supine position in a special urological chair. It allows the patient to feel more comfortable and the doctor to better perform the survey. The procedure itself lasts from 5 to 45 minutes, the average time is 10-20 minutes. Discomfort is possible during the passage of the distal end of a cystoscope through the urethra. In the case of sampling of biological material will be felt only a slight pinch.
You must mentally prepared for the fact that the bladder be injected with physiological solution, and a suspected cancer the nature of the pathology will involve a special solution for target biopsy. Such»filling» of the bladder is painless, but cause a feeling of fullness and desire to urinate, which will have to be patient.
Health and behaviour rules after cystoscopy
If the survey were performed under General anesthesia, the woman for a few hours transferred to a regular ward. In most cases, the doctor will release the patient home when she first independently urinate.
You should be prepared for the fact that after cystoscopy possible temporary discomfort or burning when urinating. These symptoms can be alleviated with the intake of warm baths and the increased volume of fluid intake per day. One should not panic, if within two days after the cystoscopy in the urine will appear a small amount of blood or small clots. This phenomenon is normal.
If a woman is planning to take the painkillers, you should consult with your doctor. For example, the aspirin is strictly prohibited. In addition, depending on the seen picture of the inside of the urethra and bladder, the urologist may recommend an antibiotic or a special drink to reduce acid levels in the urine.
If after 3 days from the date of passing of cystoscopy in women there is severe pain in the urethra, her fever, shivering or has difficulty with urination, you should immediately go to the urologist, who performed the inspection, or to seek help in the nearest urology clinic.