Cystoscopy of the bladder in children – how doing?
Cystoscopy in children is one of modern and highly effective methods of identification of diseases of the bladder. While inspected the mucosa and the lumen of the bladder, if necessary ─ the sample is collected for Cytology.
It is possible to conduct research in hospital and ambulatory.
Indications for the procedure
In these cases, the doctor may recommend children conducting cystoscopy:
- The appearance of blood in the urine of the child.
- If there are frequent exacerbations of cystitis.
- If persistent pain in the abdomen.
- When quickened, painful, difficult urination.
- When urinary retention, suspected obstruction of the urethra.
- With atypical cells on urine test results.
What is the research?
Cystoscopy the child may be conducted to achieve the following diagnostic and therapeutic purposes:
- Examination of the bladder biopsy.
- Probing and catheterization of the ureter.
- Cauterization of erosion.
- Removal of polyps.
- Introduction of medicines intravesical.
- Elimination of prostate cancer or cancer removal.
- Crushing and removal of stones.
- Stopping bleeding.
Contraindications to the study
Cystoscopy is not recommended in the presence of acute inflammatory diseases of the urethra and bladder, as if to perform the procedure during an acute process, it will lead to further damage of the mucosa and exacerbation of the current process.
In addition, manipulation is not indicated for fever of unknown origin, bleeding, and in severe General condition of the patient.
Preparation and conducting the procedure
The day before the scheduled cystoscopy starts an antibiotic with a broad spectrum of action that is recommended to continue to take in the next 7 days to prevent infection.
1-2 hours before the test to empty the bowel (alone or with the help of a laxative).
If the procedure will be under local anesthesia, of any other training is required. If the study will be under anesthesia, doctors advised not to accept food not less than 8 hours, and water ─ in 6 hours.
Further ─ about what to do during a cystoscopy.
All the study the patient is lying on her back with her legs spread. If the decision was made to perform General anesthesia, the patient is administered anesthesia. If the procedure is performed under local anesthesia in the urethra, introduce a solution of novocaine. The doctor inserts a cystoscope into the urethra passes through it, enters the cavity of the bladder, and fills it with a small amount of sterile saline for better visibility. The doctor receives all the necessary information about the state of the mucous membrane and carries out the necessary manipulation (e.g., burning, erosion, biopsy, probing or catheterization of the ureter, etc.). Often a cystoscopy is done homocysteinemia ─ in this study, patients in the vein administered contrast agent and see what the ureter and the speed with which enters the bladder urine. Thus, with the help of cystoscopy is possible to indirectly judge the state of the kidneys in children.
The duration of the study depends on the skill of the doctor, of the apparatus, which is used for inspecting individual diseases and peculiarities of the patient, as well as the objectives of the study. It can take anywhere from 5-10 minutes to an hour.
Everything he sees and makes the endoscopist during the procedure, it logs, explains the results of a survey the patient’s doctor (GP or urologist).
The following types of pathologies are diagnosed using cystoscopy:
- Chronic cystitis.
- The bladder stones.
- Obstruction of the urethra.
- Foreign body in the urethra or in the lumen of the bladder.
- Neoplasms of the lower urinary tract.
- Polyps of the lower urinary tract.
- Injuries of the bladder.
Cystoscopy as a medical intervention, can cause the following complications:
- Infection of the lower urinary tract (cystitis, urethritis).
- Violations of the integrity of the wall of the urethra.
- Violation of the integrity of the wall or rupture of the bladder.
Conducting cystoscopy in boys more difficult than girls due to the peculiarities of the structure of the urethra and its length. Much depends on the skills of the endoscopist. The boys, excluding cystitis and urethritis can occur in prostatitis, vesicles, erectile dysfunction.
There are some conditions under which the task of the doctor in the research process is much more complicated. This happens if there are congenital malformations of the urinary tract, urinary fistulas, etc. in such circumstances, complications can develop more often than usual.
With the right approach to treating most complications are reversible, they can be overcome in a few weeks.
After the examination
After cystoscopic examination. it is advisable to continue taking broad-spectrum antibiotic for 7 days. In addition, it is better to exclude from the diet of salty, spicy food, and to refrain from intense physical activity.
Sometimes the doctor for diagnosis, it is sufficient for only a ultrasound examination, in such cases you can do without cystoscopy.
In other conditions the doctor can help conduct x-rays or magnetic resonance imaging.
Selects a specific method for the diagnosis of the attending physician on the basis of complaints and findings. In some cases, the examination of the bladder immediately supplemented to treatment.
Cystoscopy of the bladder-is the newest method of diagnostics of diseases of the lower urinary tract, frequently used in clinical practice and highly informative and efficient. Therefore, if there are any complaints with the genitourinary system no need to pull or to self-medicate, you need to consult a specialist. He will gather medical history and put the presumptive diagnosis, which may be necessary to confirm it with the help of a cystoscopy.