Diagnostics of intestinal diseases using MRI
Diagnostic method using MRI based on the spectral analysis of low frequency magnetic field varying in the presence of pathologies of the gastrointestinal tract, or other organs that can detect diseases in their early stages of development. The essence of the method is that of nuclear magnetic resonance in a static magnetic field from the MRI machine absorbs or emits electromagnetic energy of a substance. Entering the magnetic field, the hydrogen protons of the human body excited, that is fixed by the scanner, and then shows the monitor.
Since MRI is more associated with moist areas of the body, it is often used in the diagnosis of diseases of the gastrointestinal tract. For example, most often for diagnostic purposes is being conducted MRI of the colon. Based on the analysis of the obtained data, the program gives tomography reconstruction and visualization of a 3d model of the organ under investigation. In the pictures showing the objects with the cytosolic large mass – a tumor, cystic formation, etc. by analyzing, the experts make the conclusion. In MRI diagnostics for a range of studies, there are specially configured devices. Each of them is designed to work only with those structures, to render which it was designed.
MRI diagnostics used in the investigation of the gastrointestinal tract is not a standalone method, it is applied as an additional, auxiliary procedure and held in conjunction with assigned labs. This is due to the location of the gastrointestinal tract in the abdominal cavity, when it loops superimposed on each other, not giving the exact visualize it all over.
In the diagnosis of small intestine and colon using MRI, it is recommended to study such areas as:
- Terminal parts of the colon.
- Loop the middle part of the small intestine (used hydro-MRI with double contrast).
- The last method shows an excellent visualization of the areas of the small intestine that is inaccessible to endoscopy in the diagnosis of its pathologies.
Indications for MRI in diseases of the intestines
The main indications for MRI diagnosis of bowel are:
- Obstruction of the intestine.
- Congenital abnormalities of the thin or thick sections.
- Definition of conglomerates.
- Endometriosis of the colon.
- Diagnosis of tumors – malignant or benign.
- Determining the location of the foreign body.
- The upcoming surgery on the large intestine.
The most popular method of MRI in the diagnosis of cancer in the intestines. It allows not only to detect tumor, but also to differentiate different types of malignant tumors and to predict their further development. The indication for prescription of MRI can be suspected in bryzgat tumor and metastases in the intestine. The reason for the MRI appointment in the large intestine can be symptoms such as:
- Pain during bowel and bloating.
- Bleeding from the rectum.
- Unexplained, sudden weight loss.
- Nausea and vomiting.
- MRI diagnosis of endometriosis of the colon.
The incidence of endometriosis of the large intestine is quite common in women of childbearing age. Most affected by this pathology video and sigmoid colon. Secondary infection occurs through affected by endometriosis the ovaries or the uterus. The danger of intestinal endometriosis is that cells of this benign neoplasm in the intestine can degenerate into a malignant tumor. Along with diagnostic studies such as: historical analysis of obstetric-gynecological analysis, ultrasonography and barium enema, is used MRI of the intestine. Together with the results of the tests, it gives the possibility not only to detect the localization of endometriosis, but also to identify the degree of patency of the intestine, the presence of adhesions and other pathologies.
The advantages of hydro-MRI diagnostics
MRI has advantages over other methods when they cannot fully identify the problem diagnosis. The most informative looks in this regard the technique of hydro-MRI. It the intestine is filled with water, which contributes to the stretching of its walls. This opens up existing tumors and other diseases (ulcerative colitis, Crohn’s disease, bowel endometriosis, polyps).
The advantage of MRI is the ability to diagnose with the help of the presence of a malignant tumor in the intestine at an early stage.
Based on the analyses and findings of MRI, it gives a chance to choose optimal treatment, as a result of which, there is a possibility of full recovery. This method applies to the suspicion of pathological deviations of the condition of the small intestine and colon. Using contrast agents, MRI diagnostics allows to make clear the contours of the gastrointestinal tract, susceptible to pathological processes. One advantage of this method is the comfort of holding it for the patient, compared to other research methods bowel.
The study does not require a long and unpleasant preparations. Before the procedure the doctor conducted the preparatory interview with the patient. Sometimes the patient is administered a contrast agent. Since the method does not use x-rays, the procedure can be performed repeatedly without fear of causing harm to the patient. MRI is not associated with damage to the skin or penetration into the body by any tools. It is a noninvasive method when the specialist conducts the research without touching the patient.
The rules of procedure
The procedure is performed in the morning on an empty stomach. Day 2 it is impossible to eat poorly digestible foods, beans, cabbage, milk, vegetables and fruits. On the eve of the MRI of the intestine, undergoing cleaning with laxatives and enemas.
Full intestinal cleansing is aimed the more accurate the study. If the intestine swells from gas, it is recommended to take activated charcoal or other enterosorbents. To remove the spasms in the bowel, before the procedure can take antispasmodic. When carrying out hydro — MRI, the patient is given to drink 1.5 liters of a solution of sorbitol or mannitol to retain fluid in the bowel during the procedure.
The results of the study bowel
In the study of MRI of the gastrointestinal tract, the specialist makes cut its General condition, inspection of plots, suspicious, and identifies areas of localization of the pathology. As the study reaches the most remote places of the intestine, it helps to detect on time conditions such as: anomalies in the structure of the intestine, different disease (ulcerative colitis, Crohn’s disease, endometriosis and sigmoid colon), tumors, metastases, diverticula, foreign objects. For cancer of the rectum, the specialist determines the stage of the disease, and if MRI is performed after anticancer therapy makes the analysis of its effectiveness.
The positive results of the study are:
- Full permeability of the intestine and bile ducts.
- No tumors, no growth of tissue due to endometriosis, there are no foreign bodies in the intestine.
- There is no aneurismal, inflammatory lesions and bleeding.
- The size and shape of the intestine look normal, respectively.
Contraindications for MRI bowel
As the basis of MRI studies is the influence of a strong magnetic field, this procedure is contraindicated in those who have implants are able to contact with him. In addition, the procedure is contraindicated:
- For pregnant and breastfeeding women.
- For patients with pacemakers, vascular clips, insulin pumps, dental dentures.
- For women with the Navy.
- For patients with claustrophobia.
- In the case of mental pathologies.
- Patients with high body weight.
- Patients with a foreign metal objects in the body (shrapnel, buckshot).
Ever-improving high-tech instrument for detailed analysis of MRI is increasingly used in practice for diagnostics of intestinal diseases by reducing the number of surgical interventions, accelerating the rehabilitation period and increasing the number of fully recovered patients.