How is bronchoscopy?
Modern endoscopic medical equipment allows you to inspect the internal condition of organs and to carry out necessary medical manipulations. So, in diseases of the lungs bronchoscopy is used to identify pathology with more than 95% accuracy. What is the procedure for what and how is bronchoscopy? About this article.
Briefly about the method
What is a bronchoscopy? A method of diagnosing respiratory tract (trachea and bronchi) by oral introduction of special endoscopic instrument, fiber optic. The study provides an opportunity to assess the condition of the mucous membrane of the respiratory tract with the purpose of diagnosis.
Most often bronchoscopic study was conducted in order to:
- find out the causes of dysfunction of the lungs, causes symptoms such as cough, hemoptysis;
- to assess the degree of mucosal lesions (such as chemical or thermal burns);
- remove from the lumen of the body a foreign object;
- to identify the presence of formations on the inner walls of the trachea and bronchi;
- to take the material for histological examination;
- to adjust treatment.
In the process of examination of possible removal from the lumen of mucous or blood concentrations. Method helps and, if necessary, application of drugs directly to the damaged area of the mucosa. It has also conducted a bronchoscopy of the lungs, when required bronchial lavage with antiseptics (sanitation), for example, with abundant separation of pus.
Indications for carrying out bronchoscopy are:
- the presence of abnormalities on x-ray;
- shortness of breath for an extended period of time;
- the suspected presence of a foreign object;
- the inflammatory process in the bronchi (if there is no apparent reason);
- the upcoming surgery, and others.
Do I need anesthesia?
Conducting bronchoscopy requires prior anesthesia. Anesthesia may be local or General. When using rigid bronchoscope diagnosis of children or adults with unstable mentality or increased anxiety General anesthesia is used.
Local anesthesia is carried out by spraying the oral tissues, ligaments and other structures of anesthetic. After this treatment, the patient feels a slight stuffy nose, lump in throat, he has a cough (possible vomiting) and problems with swallowing.
Diagnosis of the lungs by bronchoscopy requires an extra step. Mandatory before its implementation need to do an x-ray and electrocardiogram. You will also need to be tested for detection of urea and gases in the blood. The patient should inform the doctor about the presence or absence of diseases of the cardiovascular system, diabetes, the fact of taking medications (especially hormonal).
Bronchoscopy is done on an empty stomach, so eating should be only the night before diagnosis. Directly before its implementation is not allowed to drink even plain water. You will also need to remove from the face and oral cavity items such as piercing, braces, dentures.
The process of the survey
How to do a bronchoscopy of the lungs? In about 40-50 min before the patient is put injection sedatives and vasodilators, and a half – hour aminophylline to relax the muscular fibres of the bronchi.
At the beginning of the action of General anesthesia or local anesthesia, the doctor proceeds to the examination. The patient while lying down or sitting. Specialist inserts a bronchoscope through the oral or nasal cavity, and then produces the examination or doing the necessary manipulations. The duration of bronchoscopy is about an hour.
After the procedure is completed, the patient is instructed to rinse the throat or take other means to eliminate the irritation and normalize feelings.
What to do after the procedure?
Banned immediately after drinking or eating. You should wait for the normalization of gag and swallowing reflexes. This may require from one to several hours. The pain and discomfort, difficulty swallowing or speaking to pass after a while.
There are a number of diseases and conditions of the organism in which her conduct is contraindicated. This:
- narrow the larynx, trachea or bronchi;
- asthma in the period of exacerbation;
- recent myocardial infarction or stroke;
- diseases of system of blood clotting;
- mental disorders;
- hypersensitivity to anesthetics.
Diagnosis postpone to a certain time in the case of menstruation, infectious inflammatory processes (acute), pregnancy (second half).
The features of the bronchoscopy in children
Unfortunately, children also may need to use bronchoscopy. Its implementation in children are shown in the following cases:
- the ingress of a foreign object in respiratory tract (it can be a piece of toy, bead, piece of food);
- developmental abnormalities of the respiratory system;
- tuberculosis (bronchoscopy can be used for diagnosis, the taking of material for research, stop the bleeding);
- the inability to determine the cause of the disease in another way;
- lung abscess and others.
How is bronchoscopy in children? In the diagnosis in children is most often used General anesthesia and a special children’s bronchoscope. Because in childhood there is a possibility of edema of the bronchi, in advance, prepare the necessary equipment to carry out artificial ventilation. After bronchoscopy is shown taking antibiotics.
What can be the consequences of bronchoscopy?
The last bronchoscopy procedure very rarely (less than 1% of cases) leads to the appearance of complications. In this period mainly concerned about human feelings such as slight numbness of the nose or throat, but the next day they usually are.
Among the possible negative consequences are:
- allergic reactions;
- spasms of the respiratory tract;
- injury of the bronchial walls;
If there was the slightest sign of complications, measures to prevent or eliminate spend immediately, in the office of diagnosis. In any case, the diagnostic value of bronchoscopy is much higher than the risk of negative consequences.