MRI: indications and contraindications to
MRI – exceptional research method, allowing to image very thin layers of human tissue in any plane. It is burdensome for the patient, harmless, does not entail adverse consequences.
But, like any medical intervention, there are indications and contraindications to MRI.
What kind of fabric is better visualizes the study?
Often, MRI is better than CT visible on x-ray soft tissue-muscles, cartilage structure, body fat. MRI gives the opportunity to see the vessels without entering the patient a contrast agent. With the use of special software and algorithms, magnetic resonance imaging allows you to make two-dimensional and three-dimensional image of the vascular bed, the so-called magnetic resonance angiography.
Large vessels and their branching average diameter of the MRI is often enough to distinguish without additional injection of contrast. For examination of diseases of the small blood vessels that enter the drug gadolinium. Ultracytochemistry modern scanners allow you to monitor the movements of blood in the vessels and cavities of the heart, to obtain thin tissue sections of the heart muscle.
Suspicion of any pathology force the doctor to prescribe the research?
Magnetic resonance imaging – a method of high-precision and therefore costly. There are illnesses that you can get quite informative, and the available options of diagnosis. But in situations life-threatening patient, the disorders of vital systems and organs, professionals often turn to magnetic resonance imaging. When the doctor spends time to explain, patients invariably, the question arises: why and what for I need this study?
So, for the diagnosis of the nervous system and brain MRI do under the following circumstances:
- Patients who have been first identified growing neurological symptoms.
- During the treatment of patients with neurological diseases, for monitoring the effectiveness of therapy in dynamics.
- In cases resulting traumatic brain injury of any severity.
- Congenital and acquired anomalies of the skull base and upper cervical spine.
- When symptoms of increased intracranial pressure.
- In the case when the diagnosis was established by other methods, to Refine, confirm the location, determine the nature of the pathological process.
- The presence of symptoms of congestive optic disc.
- Suspected malignant/benign tumors of the brain.
- The finding of metastases and localization of metastases.
- In paroxysmal conditions, including epileptic seizures.
- Patients with impaired speech, vision, hearing.
At a pathology of organs of abdominal cavity and retroperitoneal space MRI following evidence:
- Examination of the anatomical condition of parenchyma and liver function.
- The appearance of the patient of jaundice of any origin.
- Chronic hepatitis.
- GSD and its consequences.
- Suspected tumors of the gallbladder and liver. The exclusion of metastases.
- Preoperative study.
- Diagnosis of pathologies of the pancreas: cysts, tumors, the status of the ductal system.
- When there are symptoms pointing to a tumor of the adrenal glands.
- Examination of the kidneys and ureter on the subject of inflammation and tumors.
- In the pathology of the hematopoietic system and injuries – examination of the spleen.
- Severe bowel disease such as ulcerative colitis, Crohn’s disease, a malignant process of the rectum.
MRI do if you suspect the following diseases of small pelvis:
- Hyperplasia and prostate cancer.
- Differential diagnosis of pathology of the scrotum.
- The precise diagnosis of pathological ovarian structures.
- Anomalies of the uterus.
- Detection and diagnostics of defects of development of the myometrium and endometrium.
- Evaluation of the dissemination of tumors of the bladder.
- Symptoms of lesions of the ureters.
- Assessment of spread of malignant process of the rectum.
MRI often do, if the part of the chest there is a suspicion of the following diseases:
- Vascular pathology in the thoracic cavity.
- Malignant neoplasms of the lung.
- Malignant neoplasms of the mediastinum.
MRI used for screening for the following heart diseases:
- Myocardial infarction.
- Malformations and cardiac defects.
- Pathology of heart vessels (angiography).
- Evaluation of the functional contractility of the heart muscle.
In addition to these organs and systems, MRI is often used in the diagnosis of diseases of the brain vessels and neck, temporomandibular joints, orbits, paranasal sinuses and oropharynx, soft tissues of the neck, spine and spinal cord, bones and joints, and to search for metastases in the presence of tumor.
Why this method is used as a screening diagnostic (prevention) of the diseases of the whole organism? MRI study of early reveals of the above disease, especially malignant processes.
The impossibility of wide application of the method in connection with the presence of contraindications for certain patient groups
From carrying out magnetic resonance imaging is necessary to refuse, if in the body of the patient have any metal parts that cannot be dismantled. For example, such as an insulin pump, surgical metal braces, artificial pacemaker. Diagnosis poses a threat to human life: under EMF exposure disrupted heart pacemakers, and fixed elements-ferromagnetic materials may shift in the body of the patient due to the heating by the field.
You cannot be tested during pregnancy first trimester and breast-feeding, as input, the contrast can have a harmful effect on the fetus or newborn. In severe kidneys need to get rid of a procedure with contrast, because it disturbs the process of removing contrast agent from the body.
As a rule, before the first procedure MRI using contrast is necessary to rule out allergies to gadolinium, which is an allergic test.
Is it possible to conduct magnetic resonance imaging in childhood? Yes, it is safe. But a conditional limitation is the age of seven years, as all the research you need to lie still.
Magnetic resonance imaging – high-precision survey method, which need to go at the slightest suspicion of a serious disease. Very often, Mr imaging provides an opportunity not to miss the onset of the disease to prevent its development or treat conservative methods. However, due to the presence of contraindications to MRI, in some categories of patients often do not use this method in full.