MRI of the rectum: which shows, training,
The human intestines is among the organs, the diagnosis of which is complicated enough and can bring the patient considerable discomfort. Alternative method of examination of the rectum and the diagnosis of appendicitis is magnetic resonance imaging is a painless and safe method to quickly gather the necessary information about the structure of the body.
The prevalence method
MRI is not among the «traditional» methods of examination used in gastroenterology. This is due to the fact that the intestine is a hollow organ, the loop of which is randomly superimposed on each other, preventing good visualization and interpretation of the results of the scan, so a more common method is the barium enema and colonoscopy. Rectum – the final portion of the large intestine, therefore her research is part of a comprehensive survey of this Department of the gastrointestinal tract, which includes the sigmoid, the blind and the ascending colon.
Despite the fact that the method of magnetic resonance imaging is not enough is often used in gastroenterology, to its implementation, there are certain indications. Most often, the MRI is assigned in the following cases:
- Diagnosis of congenital anomalies of the colon.
- Bleeding of unknown origin.
- Intestinal obstruction.
- The identification of stones that are most often found in the sigmoid and cecum.
- The identification of cancer and benign tumors.
- Diagnosis of appendicitis in the case, when other methods are unavailable.
The main reason for referral for an MRI of the colon is to identify cancer tumors — cancer direct, cecum and sigmoid colon treat common diseases, occupying about 70% of all lesions of the intestine. MRI is not the method of choice in the diagnosis of appendicitis and cancer pathologies, but the study allows us to determine the incidence of cancer and metastasis, and to develop tactics of surgical treatment. In addition, Mr imaging of the rectum is indicated for the evaluation of the results of surgical intervention and chemotherapy.
In the diagnosis of appendicitis, MRI has a leading position, but this method is not always justified – the study is expensive and can be replaced for cheaper.
Potentialities of magnetic resonance therapy in cancer diagnostics:
- Defining the boundaries of education, degree of involvement of the intestinal wall in the pathological process.
- Identify the relationship of the pathological focus to the sphincter and pelvic floor muscles.
- Control of a condition of the lymph nodes and blood vessels.
Contraindications to the examination
For MRI straight, the blind and the sigmoid colon has the same contraindications as for imaging any other field:
- Implanted cardiac pacemaker, insulin pump, vascular clips, and cochlear implant. Electromagnetic wave can knock down a pacemaker and vascular clips to move, increasing the possibility of a brain bleed.
- Set compression-distraction Ilizarov.
- Plates and wires installed at osteosynthesis.
- The maximum permissible body weight of the patient.
These contraindications are absolute, meaning the study is strictly prohibited. There are relative contraindications — scan is not desirable, but possible in extreme cases:
- The first trimester of pregnancy.
- The fear of the confined space in a patient.
- The presence of the body tattoos, made with metallic paints.
- Unstable mental state of the patient, hyperkinesis (scanning requires the patient to remain fully immobile throughout the procedure).
- The serious condition of the patient.
- Asthma heart, kidney or liver failure.
- The patient is on life support.
Preparations for Mr-imaging of the rectum
Survey direct, cecum and sigmoid colon is performed after preliminary preparation of the gastrointestinal tract:
- Three days before the procedure, it is better to limit your intake of gas-forming foods – beans, legumes, fresh vegetables and fruit, muffins and dairy products.
- In that case, if the patient suffers from flatulence before the examination it is better to take «Drops» or activated carbon.
- The bowel needs to be empty before the study, it is recommended to do a cleansing enema or taking a laxative drug. After the enema is better not to take heavy food. Study do fasting to reduce intestinal motility and improve visualization, so the last meal should be 5-6 hours before the procedure.
- Before scanning, you must go to the toilet.
- To relieve spasm of smooth muscles of the intestine need to take a «no-silos».
- If necessary, enhance visualization, the patient is instructed to drink 1.5 liters of a solution of mannitol or sorbitol, which retain all the fluid in the intestine.
In addition to the preparation of the gastrointestinal tract, the patient should prepare your personal documents and associated with disease – passport, procedure, medical history or patient card. Better to take care of comfortable, loose clothing without metal objects.
The methodology of the survey
Before you enter the office, the patient removes all jewelry, pulls out his keys and mobile phone electromagnetic waves incapacitate phones, making them unusable. The same goes for credit cards is under the influence of apparatus they are demagnetized. Entering the room, the patient lies on a special couch in the position on the back. Specialist fixes the patient’s body belts and coils is necessary to maintain immobility during the procedure. The extra movement will blur the picture and make a survey uninformative. Couch drives into the tunnel of scanner, where the scan. The average MRI procedure takes half an hour. In case of any discomfort the patient may consult the doctor with the help of internal communication, as a rule, it is always enabled. At the end of the study, the doctor takes some time to analyze the obtained images.
What the MRI shows a straight, the blind and the sigmoid colon:
- Foreign body.
- Cancer and benign tumors.
- Sites of metastasis.
- Anomalies in the structure.
- Polyps and diverticula.
- Inflammation of the appendicular cecum – appendicitis.
Alternative methods of examination of the rectum
Leading methods of examination of the bowel are barium enema and colonoscopy.
A colonoscopy is an examination of the bowel using a special probe. During the survey, it is possible to accurately examine the mucous membrane of straight, the blind and the sigmoid colon in cases of suspected cancer to biopsy to confirm the diagnosis. In most cases, a colonoscopy should be administered after the barium enema to resolve contentious clinical situations. In the diagnosis of appendicitis, the study uninformative.
Barium enema – during this diagnostic procedure, the intestine is populated by a barium solution with subsequent x-ray scan. Study shows cancer and benign tumors in the sigmoid, cecum and rectum, allows us to determine the localization of the narrowing of the intestine. But to identify areas of inflammation with the help of this survey will fail, so appendicitis it will not show.
The question of which method of diagnosis sigmoid, cecum and rectum the doctor will decide on the basis of clinical symptoms. If you suspect appendicitis, it is better to do an ultrasound, and to clarify the prevalence of cancer will help MRI.