MSCT of the abdomen
The use of x-rays in diagnostic medicine have significantly increased the level of early diagnosis of serious diseases. One of the most accurate methods based on ionizing radiation is today considered MSCT – multislice computed tomography.
Than CT differs from conventional CT?
Spiral computed tomography the physical basis is no different from CT – based method are also x-rays. The main difference from conventional CT computer tomography is that the scanning is performed on a spiral path – the machine rotates around the couch with the body of the patient while the couch moves into the MRI scanner. One turn of the spiral corresponds to a snapshot of one area in different planes. With the help of CT it became possible to produce accurate three-dimensional models of the studied organs of the abdominal cavity, and the specialist has the ability to adjust the size of the slice is the most modern scanner scans slices less than 1 mm is much smaller than a simple CT.
Indications for research
As a rule, multislice computed tomography of the abdominal cavity is administered after other methods of examination – often after the ultrasound or radiography. In clinical practice CT is prescribed for diagnosis or more detailed studies of discovered pathologies. Computed tomography is ideal for planning surgical treatment and monitoring of postoperative patients.
The abdominal organs to be scanned on the scanner, include:
- Gastrointestinal tract – stomach, small intestine and large intestine.
- Pancreas, bile duct, liver, spleen, gallbladder.
- The kidneys, ureters, adrenal glands.
- Lymph nodes and vessels of abdominal cavity.
- The abdominal aorta and other large vessels lying in this area.
- Fiber of the abdominal cavity.
The main indication to perform CT studies of the abdomen – abdominal pain of unknown origin, differential diagnosis of diseases of the abdominal organs, as well as a survey on oncological diseases. Spiral CT shows benign and malignant tumors, inflammatory diseases of the abdominal organs, ascites (fluid accumulation in the abdomen), and also purulent diseases – abscesses. In addition, CT helps to identify stones in the kidney and ureter, mechanical jaundice, aortic aneurysm, and various traumatic.
Contraindications to the survey
The level of radiation when performing computed tomography will be much lower than KT, so the number of contraindications to this method of less. All contraindications for the survey are relative, which means the possibility of scanning in emergency situations. These include:
- The patient’s age up to 14 years.
- Pregnancy and breastfeeding during pregnancy is extremely desirable to prevent the x-ray exposure.
- Exceeding the permissible body weight of the patient – patients heavier than 120 kg are not allowed to examination.
- The presence in the body of the metal elements can distort the picture.
- In case of conducting MSCT with contrast undesirable conduct examination of patients with kidney disease. Allergy to the contrast is a contraindication to the examination.
What goes into the preparation for the exam?
To improve image quality and increase information content of the method, it is recommended to prepare the gastrointestinal tract. To do this you must follow a diet is to remove gas-forming foods from your diet. These include: soft drinks, bread, fruits and vegetables, dairy products. The scan it is better to do on an empty stomach, so for eight hours prior to the scheduled examination, it is recommended to refrain from eating. Bloating it is recommended to take carminative. The preparation is quite simple and does not require considerable patient effort.
How goes the research?
Procedure multislice computed tomography does not cause the patient any discomfort and painful sensations. Before scanning, patients should remove all jewellery and metal objects, the presence of dentures they also recommended to remove from the mouth. The patient laid on the couch and fixed in position, often on the back. After this, the Desk goes in and starts scanning: daybed gradually moves in the horizontal plane, and the main part of the apparatus move in a spiral around the couch with the patient. The study does not take a lot of time – in most cases, 10-15 minutes. Medical staff at the time of the survey deleted in the next room, if necessary you can contact him via talkback, the built-in scanner.
MSCT with contrast bolus
The use of radiopaque substances in the study increases the contrast of tissue that allows the differential diagnosis of the identified pathology. As a contrast substance is used on the basis of iodine – it is opaque to x-rays. A contrast agent is injected intravenously immediately before the start of the study with the help of auto-injector – the speed reference is controlled by a program built into the scanner. The contrast helps in the diagnosis:
- Pathological formations in the liver, kidney, pancreas and spleen.
- The spread of the tumor, as well as evaluate the possibility of its removal.
- Localization of metastases, determining the boundaries of their distribution.
- Pathologies of the aorta and its branches, including the diagnosis of an aneurysm of the aorta, separation of its walls.
- Of violations in the system of the inferior Vena cava.
- Diagnosis of cysts, including parasitic.
Alternative methods of diagnosis
In the case where the multi-spiral computed tomography is not possible due to various reasons, it is possible to study by other methods:
- Magnetic resonance imaging of the abdominal cavity allows to obtain a more accurate picture of soft tissues, thus eliminating the harmful effects of ionizing radiation. However, the cost of this procedure much higher. The method allowed during pregnancy.
- A CT scan – a cheaper method, however, suffers from the clarity of the pictures. It is undesirable to do a CT scan during pregnancy.
- Ultrasound examination is a safe method of rapid diagnosis, but the informativeness of this study is much lower.
During pregnancy it is desirable to conduct MSCT, despite the fact that the radiation level is much lower. This is due to the fact that ionizing radiation contributes to the development of abnormalities, so before the study, women are recommended to verify the absence of pregnancy.
When choosing a method should be precisely defined with the goal – if the necessary security and informativeness, it is preferable to do an MRI. MSCT and magnetic resonance imaging give approximately the same result, but MRI is much more expensive. During pregnancy it is better to give preference to MRI.