Panoramic radiography of the jaw (teeth): indications, conduct, results
In the modern dental practice great importance is attached to rapid and accurate diagnosis of different pathologies of zubochelyustny system. The leading diagnostic method for early detection of diseases of the teeth, jaws and the temporomandibular joint is x-ray examination, one species of which is panoramic radiography.
A description of the method
Feature of panoramic radiography is the simultaneous display on film of both jaws and the teeth located between the two temporomandibular joints. The main difference between the apparatus for panoramic x-ray is an x-ray tube circumferentially around the patient’s head, whereby it is possible to obtain images of the various divisions, without changing the position of the subject. The film is set in a flexible cassette, located at the lower third of the face. The study obtained a doubling of the flat image.
Advantages of panoramic x-ray set:
- The minimum irradiation time.
- The possibility of obtaining detailed pictures, showing all the fine details and anatomical features of the teeth and jaws.
- The fastest results.
Indications for study
Panoramic x-rays administered to patients to assess the state of the dentition as a whole, which is necessary in the following situations:
- Planning of orthodontic treatment.
- Diagnosis of periodontal disease using panoramic images to assess the level of bone tissue resorption of the alveolar process of the maxilla and the corresponding part of the lower jaw.
- Identifying impacted (impacted) and dystopic (misplaced) teeth and their position relative to other formations.
- Assessment of the jaw bone when planning the implantation of artificial teeth.
- In prosthetic dentistry – evaluation of the preserved teeth for the selection of method of prosthetics.
- Diagnosis of surgical pathology – cysts, tumors, osteomyelitis, and specific diseases (tuberculosis, actinomycosis).
- Quality control of therapeutic and orthopedic treatment.
Undesirable to conduct any x-ray examination during pregnancy, however, in the case of urgent need this issue solved individually at the discretion of the specialist. Radiation exposure during the study does not exceed the maximum permissible values, it is equal to 0.02 mSv, which is identical to the radial load during the flight on average distances. Special lead apron covering the woman’s stomach, so in the third trimester to undergo such an examination is permissible. It is important to follow all the commands of the technician to get a good shot the first time, so re-screening is not desirable.
The methodology of the
Special training before the study do not hold. Immediately before the procedure you should remove all products containing metal – earrings, chains, glasses, dentures. Ignoring this rule will result in uninformative images, as metal objects are delaying x-rays, with the result that they obscure anatomical structures.
During the examination the patient should be protected from harmful radiation. To do this, it put on a lead apron and collar to protect the bodies, are especially susceptible to the action of harmful rays. After that, the examinee enters the x-ray machine, where he is given a special wand that need to tightly bite teeth.
Language for the duration of the scan should be tightly pressed to the sky to move the jaw impossible.
The doctor monitors the position of the patient’s body – it needs to lean the breast on a special platform, and be completely still – for convenience, some machines have special hand rails.
After the launch of the device around the head starts to rotate the emitter, if necessary, the radiologist will ask you to change the position of the head. The scanning procedure will not take more than 5 minutes, it is important to constantly monitor the position of the tongue and lips – they must be closed.
Correctly decode the received pictures can only be a specialist. On the radiographs it is possible to see pathology such as:
- Caries primary or secondary – in the picture it looks like dark areas on a lighter background of the teeth.
- Pulpitis can be diagnosed by the presence of deep cavities that have reached the cavity of the tooth.
- Periodontitis is defined as areas of rarefaction of the tissue in the root tips of teeth.
- The cyst in the picture looks like a rounded formation of dark color in the alveolar bone or the body of the jaw.
- Osteomyelitis is visualized as dark areas in the body of the mandible, filled with a necrotic mass.
To do panoramic x-rays at any of dentistry, public or private, are equipped with the machine for a circular x-ray. The simplicity of the study, high information content and low radiation exposure has led to a proliferation of the method of panoramic radiography.