Preparation for sigmoidoscopy: algorithm for patient
Frequent occurrence of diseases of the rectum causes the development of diagnostic methods and tools for its examination. Sigmoidoscopy (PPC) is the main method to assess the condition of the walls of the final division of the large intestine, in particular its mucosa. This method is widely used by doctors-gastroenterologists, and specialists in other fields such as Oncology, infectious diseases, etc. But the preparation for sigmoidoscopy is the most important factor in determining the effectiveness and safety of the whole procedure, therefore, training should be properly carried out in all patients.
General information about the survey
Rectoscopy is a visual method of evaluation of the rectum and a small section of the sigmoid. With this purpose used a proctoscope, which is a flexible tube with a small diameter (about 2 cm) and of sufficient length to 35 cm On a sigmoidoscopy has a camera and light source to allow inspection of the mucous membrane. If the procedure is necessary to hold the child, use special pediatric rectoromanoscopy.
Sigmoidoscopy is performed in accordance with the indications and contraindications in the patient. The indications include the following situations:
- Long existing in humans pain in the lower abdomen.
- Loss end of the rectum.
- Chronic violations of the chair in the form of constipation or diarrhea.
- The appearance in the chair of pathological admixtures of mucus, blood or pus.
- Suspected internal intestinal bleeding from the lower divisions of the colon.
- Chronic inflammation of the rectum and sigmoid colon.
- Intestinal infections, e.g. dysentery.
- Suspected benign or malignant neoplasm in the rectum.
However, in the survey, there are contra-indications restricting the use of vectorscope:
- Decompensated diseases of the internal organs, leading to destabilization of the patient’s condition.
- Stenosis of the lumen of the rectum congenital or acquired nature.
- Acute inflammatory process in the rectum.
- The violation of the integrity of the anal canal and rectum (fissure, ulcer formation, etc.).
- Hemorrhoids with thrombosis of hemorrhoidal veins.
In these situations the procedure should be abandoned in favor of other methods of examination of the colon.
Diet to prepare for the examination
Many patients wonder how to prepare for sigmoidoscopy, and how to do it? The main stage of preparation for the examination is in compliance with a special diet 2-3 days before the procedure. It is important to abandon coarse fibrous foods that are high in fiber. To do this, exclude from the diet:
- fatty meats and fish;
- dishes with potato, hard wheat and barley;
- legumes such as peas and beans;
- bread and pastries;
- drinks with a large amount of gas;
- alcoholic beverages;
- food with lots of seasonings and spices.
In contrast, all patients recommend teas on the basis of vegetables, weak broths on low-fat meats, dairy products with low fat content, mild green tea.
Preparation of the patient for sigmoidoscopy is mandatory to include the diet, as it allows you to clear the gastrointestinal tract from the «heavy» products and to reduce its filled with food and gases. The diet should be carried out in accordance with the recommendations of a physician or memo, which was given to the patient prior to the procedure.
Cleansing of the colon
In addition to diet, preparation for rectoscopy must include the colon cleanse. For this purpose, most often used or medications or a normal enema to properly prepare for the exam.
Medicinal products for bowel cleansing
Today, there are a large number of drugs, allowing for effective preparation for sigmoidoscopy. One such medication is the Fortrans. This drug allows to have a soft bowel movement without hospitalization in a medical institution. However, it is very important before applying to consult with your doctor.
Preparation for rectoscopy with medication is a safe and effective method of colon cleansing. Drugs provide physiological defecation without harm to the gastro-intestinal tract and human health.
Application of Fortrans patients in preparation for the next. One sachet of the drugs is calculated at an average of 18-20 kg of body weight. The amount of the substance diluted in a liter of warm pure water and drink one hour equal portions. Such application allows to achieve softening of stool throughout the intestine. If the calculation of the dose get a fractional number, rounding produced in a big way. Depending on the time of the rectoscopy there are two schemes of using Fortrans.
The procedure is scheduled for morning hours
Refuse food should be lunch before your procedure. After that, you can only drink a light broth or water. In the area of 2-3 hours apply two bags of drug and make the hour and use the remaining dosage.
Generally, the effect of the drug occurs within 2 hours, and is terminated after 4-6 hours from the time of discontinuation of medication.
The procedure is scheduled for the middle of the day
If patient preparation for sigmoidoscopy is to conduct a survey at lunch time, the acceptance of Fortrans produce the night before. The remaining portion of the medicines applied at 6-7 am. Usually complete cleaning of the intestines occurs within an hour after using the drug. It is important to note that the simultaneous intake of other drugs is not recommended in connection with a reduction in their effectiveness.
In addition to the Fortrans can be used: Microlax, Duphalac, Lavaca and other drugs. Each of these drugs has its own regimen, which you need to check with your doctor or the instructions for use.
Use the enema method
Such preparation before sigmoidoscopy is performed the evening before and the morning of. To optimally use the mug Esmarch. The patient is lying on its side and Flex the knees. In a mug filled with about 1.5 liters of warm water at room temperature. Then lift up the mug Esmarch, and the water gradually flows into the colon. Then the intestine is emptied. The procedure must be repeated until clean wash water. In this case, the bowel prep is finished.
Preparation of the patient for such examination shall always be conducted in accordance with the recommendations of a physician. The main methods of bowel preparation – use of medications to cleanse the colon and use the enema method. Correctly executed the procedure allows to significantly increase the efficiency of the survey and to significantly reduce the risk of possible side effects.