Preparation for x-ray (radiography): rules for the patient
X-ray methods of investigation remain fast, convenient and reliable methods of diagnosis are frequently used in modern medicine and, despite the abundance of new methods confidently take their place in the plan of examination of patients.
The types of x-ray
There are two main methods of x-ray studies:
Before you can assign any study to his patient, the doctor interrogates and examines it closely acquainted with the history, history of the disease. Putting forward the hypothesis of a possible disease, your doctor may use x-rays, as one of the ways of its confirmation.
It is important to be guided by the principles of necessity and sufficiency ─ to use only those means and methods of diagnosis, which are sufficient to determine the disease, but not excessive.
Before proceeding to the diagnosis, it is important to explain to the patient the purpose of the study, the reasons why you selected this method, and not the other, and also to explain what is training.
Any x-ray examination has a number of contraindications:
- Children up to age 15 years.
- Pregnant women.
Pregnant women x-rays may adversely affect fetal development and children ─ to cause disruption of the growth and development of organs and systems.
The doctor may insist on a survey if you cannot use other methods to verify the diagnosis.
Before x-ray examination should be aware of the basic principles of preparation for quality diagnostics.
General principles for the preparation
- Should be possible to release the investigated area of the garment.
- The study area should also be free from bandages, patches, electrodes, and other obstructions that can reduce the quality of the image.
- To ensure that there are no various chains, watches, belt, hair clips, if they are located in an area that will be subjected to study.
- Leave open only the specific doctors area, the rest of the body is closed with a special protective apron, shielding x-rays.
X-rays of the skull, spinal column and joints
Can be assigned to both General and targeted the interest of a physician region.
X-ray of the skull and multiple spine from cervical to thoracic training there.
When x-rays of the lumbar and sacral spine, the study of the bones of the pelvis, and an x-ray of the hip joints, the patient is assigned diet and purgation, all of this is described in detail in the preparation is the gastrointestinal tract.
For inspection of joints and extremities no preparation is necessary.
X-ray of chest organs
- Plain radiography of the chest organs can diagnose pathological changes of the skeleton, lung tissue, condition of the pleural cavity to assess the size and shape of shadows of the heart and adjacent vessels.
To prepare for this study, is not necessary.
- Bronchoscopy and bronchography allow to obtain x-rays of the trachea and bronchi after injection of contrast. Need for the study of lung inaccessible to endoscopy, in the diagnosis of various bronchopulmonary diseases, and/or planning surgery.
As a preparation, in the presence of sputum, your lungs should be cleared from it, for example, using expectorants assigned in advance before the examination. Day study not eat or drink anything.
X-ray of the breast
X-ray examination of the breast (mammography) can detect pathological changes in the glands, mainly the nature of the tumor. Is assigned according to the testimony of a gynecologist, oncologist or other specialist.
As a screening method is used for early diagnosis of breast cancer in women older than 40 years.
Preparation for mammography is not required.
X-rays of the digestive system
- Plain radiography of abdominal cavity gives a General idea about the state of the digestive tract of the patient. Diagnose intestinal obstruction, the presence of free gas (if there is a perforation of a hollow organ).
Special training is required.
- X-rays of the esophagus. Without contrast agent needs to search for foreign bodies.
Most often, it is necessary to study the contrast ─ to assess motor functions of the authority, determining the existence of possible restrictions or extensions of tumors, hernias hiatal.
Preparation for fluoroscopy involves ingestion prior to testing, the necessary amount of contrast medium.
- X-rays of the stomach and duodenum 12 shows the size and shape of the stomach, its motor activity, the presence of defects in the mucosa, tumors, stenosis.
A few days before the examination the patient is assigned a diet that excludes meals and foods that trigger flatulence. The study was conducted on an empty stomach.
On the eve before the examination, do a cleansing enema or a laxative is prescribed the drug. It is possible to use chelators.
- X-ray of the colon shows the size and position of the colon, as well as its motor function.
When the barium enema is administered rectally suspension of barium and fluoroscopy is carried out. A possible combination of the barium suspension and air (double contrast technique).
Preparation similar to the preparation of the study of the stomach and 12 duodenal ulcer.
X-rays of the gallbladder and biliary tract
These methods of research allow to determine the shape and position of the gallbladder, presence of stones or tumors in the lumen.
The contrast agent can be administered orally or intravenously.
The preparation is the same as in the study of the digestive tract.
X-rays of the urinary system
- Plain radiography of the kidneys and urinary tract helps to get a General impression of the form and position of kidneys, ureters condition, identify radio-opaque stones.
- Several types urography (excretory, retrograde) give more information than the previous study.
As preparation, diet appointed, as already described above, laxatives the day before the study.
Preparation for radiography and fluoroscopy is easy, and with the proper and quality performance allows the doctor to obtain the most informative result.