Radiography – what is it?
Radiography is a non – invasive diagnostic method allowing to obtain an image of individual sections of the human body on x-ray film or digital media using ionizing radiation. X-rays allows to study the anatomical and structural features of organs and systems, helping in the diagnosis of many internal pathologies that are not visible during normal inspection.
A description of the method
Radiographic method of research is based on the use of x-rays. X-rays emitted by the sensor apparatus have a high penetrating power. Passing through tissue of the human body, the rays ionize the cells and detained them in different amount, resulting in x-ray film appear black-and-white image of the anatomical region. The bone is more radiopaque, so in pictures it looks lighter, darker areas is soft tissue that poorly absorbs x-rays.
Indications and contraindications to the examination
Radiography, like x-rays and other radiological methods of examination is carried out only when indicated, and a lot of them – this study is administered to patients to visualize the internal organs and systems in order to detect pathological deviations in their structure. Radiography is shown in the following cases:
- Diagnosis of diseases of the skeleton and internal organs.
- Verification of successful treatment and detection of undesirable consequences.
- Position monitoring is installed catheters and tubes.
Before the study, each patient is queried to determine possible contraindications to dental x-rays.
- The active form of tuberculosis.
- Dysfunction of the thyroid gland.
- Severe General condition of the patient.
- The period of pregnancy.
- Breastfeeding if necessary the administration of contrast material.
- Cardiac and renal failure (a relative contraindication to contrast).
- Allergic to iodine-containing substances, if necessary, the use of contrast agents.
The advantages of radiography over other methods:
- The main advantage of x-ray research is the accessibility and simplicity of its execution. Most clinics are equipped with the necessary equipment, so usually there are no problems with the place where you can run a scan. The price for x-rays, usually low.
- Before the study, there is no need for complicated preparation. The exception is the x – ray with contrast.
- Screenshots are stored for a long time, so they can show the different professionals even a few years later.
The main drawback of x-ray research is the radiation load on the body, but under certain rules (scan on modern machines, and the use of personal protective equipment), it’s easy to avoid unwanted effects.
Another disadvantage of the method is that the resulting images can be viewed only in one plane. In addition, some bodies are not displayed in the pictures, and therefore the studies required to enter the contrast agent. The machines of the old sample do not allow to obtain a clear image, so often have to assign additional research to clarify the diagnosis. To date, the most informative is a scan on the machines with digital recorders.
Contrast radiography from x-rays
Fluoroscopy is one of the main types of x-rays. The meaning of the method consists in obtaining a image of the investigated region on fluorescent screen by x-rays in real time. In contrast to radiography, the method does not allow to obtain graphical images of the organs on film, but it allows to evaluate not only the structural features of the organ, but it is the removability of the filling, stretching. Fluoroscopy is often accompanied by the installation of catheters and angioplasty. The main disadvantage is a higher radiation exposure compared with x-rays.
How goes the examination?
The methodology of x-rays for different organs and systems are similar, differing only in the stacking of the patient and the place of administration of contrast material. Directly in front of the Cabinet you should remove all metal objects, is already in the office should wear a protective apron. Depending on the objectives of the study the patient is placed on a couch in a certain position or put on a chair. Behind the study area is placed a cassette tape, and then direct the sensor. At the time of the survey technician out of the room, the patient should keep perfectly still in order to obtain clear images.
In some cases, scanning is performed in several planes, the specialist will tell the patient about the change of posture. When applying a contrast agent is administered as needed before the scan. After completion of the study, the specialist checks the images to assess their quality; if necessary, the scan will be repeated.
In order to properly «read» the picture needs to be qualified, ignorant person make it very difficult. Image obtained in the study are negatives, so the denser structures of the body are displayed as bright areas, and soft tissues appear as dark education.
When decrypting every area of the body doctors follow certain rules. For example, when chest x-ray experts estimate the position and structural features of organs – lungs, heart, mediastinum, inspect the ribs and clavicle for damage (fractures and cracks). All specifications are estimated in accordance with the age of the patient.
For the final diagnosis of one x-ray is often not enough – we need to rely on survey data, inspection, and other laboratory and instrumental methods of examination. Do not engage in self-diagnosis, the method of x-ray is still quite complicated for people without higher medical education, its purpose, requires special indications.