Rectoscopy the rectum: what it is, how do, what are the differences?
Diagnostic procedure rectoscopy bowel is decrypted on the basis of name of medical terms: rectum (Latin rectum)+scope (Greek – explore). Its synonyms: sigmoidoscopy (sigmaromanum – sigmoid colon) and videoendoscope. It is clear that the method is directed on research of a condition of rectum and sigmoid. Held on the testimony of a proctologist. Requires advance preparation. For use of a special device – a sigmoidoscopy.
What is a sigmoidoscopy?
The device for carrying out rectoscopy – tube made of medical metal, which is provided with a lighting system and air supply. The latter is necessary in order to fold the surface of the intestinal mucosa was long and the doctor was able to consider the place of its destruction. A proctoscope, or a sigmoidoscopy may have a different diameter (up to 2 cm) and length.
What is rectoscopy, and for which it is prescribed? The procedure gives the possibility to examine every millimeter of the surface of the intestine. With this method, the specialist conducts the assessment of the bowel wall, notes the presence or absence of neoplasms, foci of inflammation, damage.
In addition, rectoscopy is not only a diagnostic method of research, it is used for therapeutic purposes. Using videomicroscopy, your doctor may:
- to remove small polyps;
- to stop the bleeding;
- removed from the lumen of the intestine foreign body;
- take a piece of tissue for further analysis.
The method used for preventive examinations. It is recommended to people who have reached the age of 40. As a preparatory procedure rectoscopy do before colonoscopy or barium enema.
Indications for diagnosis by the method rectoscopy
Holding sigmoidoscopy is indicated for such symptoms or conditions, such as:
- violations of the chair;
- pain in the rectal area and lower abdomen;
- the presence of bleeding;
- the suspicion of inflammation or malignancy;
- discharge (purulent, mucous, bloody);
- if there is a feeling of incomplete defecation;
- if you suspect the presence of a foreign body and others.
How to prepare for a rectoscopy?
Feature rectoscopy in that it requires prior preparation. The state of the surface of the intestinal wall will depend on the result of diagnosis, the correct diagnosis and medical tactics. For this you need to follow the diet for 2-3 days before the procedure and to perform a cleansing enema or special preparations.
Diet prior to the sigmoidoscopy
The meaning of the diet is to reduce the formation of gases and reduce the amount of food residue in the intestinal lumen. For this purpose, use the so-called uncindery diet. What is it? Should be excluded from the diet of fruits, vegetables, starchy foods, fatty, fizzy liquid. Preference broth, fermented milk products, lean fish or chicken meat. The minimum duration is 2 days.
To cleanse the bowel before rectoskopia in three ways:
- Enema. Giving enemas to need the day before procedure in the evening and in the morning prior to the event. The evening should do the two approaches with an interval of 60 minutes. The liquid volume is around 1.5 l in the Morning is enough for one cleanse.
- Laxatives, taken orally. From this group of funds is most often used fortrans, but you can use other, for example, fleet or lavacol. Depending on the time of passage of diagnosis, fortrans drink either in the evening or divided into two parts and take one half in the evening and another in the morning.
- Laxative used rectally. Microlax is a drug which should be administered directly into the rectum night and morning.
What else is required before carrying out rectoscopy?
If there is rectoscopy, then the doctor should be informed about existing diseases, the presence of Allergy to any drug. Necessarily need to tell the specialist about the admission of drugs such as:
- nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs;
- reducing the blood viscosity;
- for the treatment of diabetes;
- containing iron.
Technique of sigmoidoscopy
How is rectoscopy rectum? First, the proctologist examines the state of the guts finger method and anoscope. The doctor then explains to the particular situation, which should take the patient, proper breathing, warns of possible unpleasant moments and sensations.
The correct approach procedure videomicroscopy not leads to pain.
Rectoscopy (sigmoidoscopy) is as follows:
- the patient strips to the waist and laid on its side or take the knee-elbow position;
- the device is treated with a special tool that facilitates the promotion, and injected a few inches into the rectum;
- a little serves the air to the folds of the mucous membrane disposed;
- insert the eyepiece and examine the condition of the walls, gradually pushing the proctoscope down the intestine;
- during inspection it is possible to cleanse the colon the pumps, removal of small polyps (coagulation loop), and the collection of material for histology;
- carefully remove the instrument from the intestines.
Duration rectoscopy is 5-10 minutes, depending on what actions will produce the doctor in the inspection process.
Do I need anesthesia with sigmoidoscopy?
In many cases, rectoscopy is performed without anesthesia and is well tolerated by patients. Sometimes, on individual request, can be used local anesthesia or intravenously (if patient insists on it). Mandatory anesthesia carried out in the presence of damage to the wall of the colon or back passage, at available cracked, need for surgical intervention.
The use of rectoscopy in children
Children with a diagnosis rectoskopia use rectoscopy a small diameter. The preparatory phase is the same as in adults (diet and intestinal cleansing). For small children the procedure is performed with General anesthesia mandatory.
Contraindications to the procedure
It is impossible to do a sigmoidoscopy in case of such conditions and disorders like:
- the narrow lumen of the rectum;
- abscess in the acute form;
- anal fissure;
- heart failure;
- bleeding from the back passage;
- mental disorders;
- hemorrhoids in the acute stage;
- pulmonary insufficiency;
- the serious condition of the patient.
These contraindications are relative, with the improvement in rectoscope can be carried out. In some cases, for example, if you need urgent examination, make a diagnosis with the use of anesthesia.
Unlike rectoscopy colonoscopy from
What is the difference between rectoscopy and colonoscopy? The main difference is in the area of surface surveyed and intestine. The depth of insertion of the proctoscope is up to 60 cm, and can only examined the distal part of the colon, the colonoscope is designed to study the entire colon and enter 1.5 m.
In addition, colonoscopy is more painful, it is required to use anesthesia. Sigmoidoscopy can undergo without anesthesia.
Another difference between these diagnostic methods is the duration. Holding sigmoidoscopy takes 5-15 minutes, while colonoscopy lasts about an hour.
The preparatory phase to the conduct of colonoscopy requires more time. Diet should begin 5 days prior to the survey. If assigned rectoscopy, it is enough 2-3 days.
Also colonoscopy rectoscopy different from those that have a higher risk of complications.
If we consider that it is better – colonoscopy or videoendoscopy – from the patient, the choice will be in favor of the second method. But to oppose research does not make sense, as each of them is designed for a particular situation. The doctor may need to see a full picture of the state of the colon. And this will need to do a colonoscopy.