Rehabilitation after arthroscopy of the knee joint: physical therapy, massage, development and exercises
Arthroscopy in orthopedic practice has not only diagnostic but also therapeutic value. Despite the fact that the method is minimally invasive, its application requires a certain recovery period after the intervention, the duration of which depends on the nature of impact and degree of difficulty of the violation. Rehabilitation after knee arthroscopy is no exception.
Why do arthroscopy of the knee?
With the diagnostic purpose arthroscopic method is used in cases where other options for study (x-ray, ultrasound, tomography) did not show a complete picture of the violations. Common indications for carrying out are:
- damage to cartilage tissue;
- the need for abrasion of the cartilage surface;
- removal of foreign bodies from the cavity of the joint;
- dislocations and subluxations;
- torn ligaments and tendons and other violations.
Why you need rehabilitation after arthroscopy?
The knee joint is one of the most complex in the human body. Any damage or interference, even such minimally invasive like arthroscopy can lead to the occurrence of complications and deterioration of the patient. Despite the fact that complications are rare, the risk of their development is still there. This:
- scars and adhesions;
- compression of the tissues (muscle, nervous) fluid;
- the infectious process;
- accumulation of blood in the joint cavity;
- movement disorder and others.
The likelihood of complications depends largely on the actions of the patient during the recovery period. Therefore, serious consideration should be given to rehabilitation after knee arthroscopy.
The basic rules of rehabilitation
Rehabilitation measures aimed at recovery after knee arthroscopy begins with the first days. Should strictly observe the basic rules.
- Providing rest to the knee. This is especially true the first day after the treatment. You need to eliminate any stress and to stay in bed (even to go to the toilet should be on a special ship).
- Hold the foot of the hill. To prevent swelling and stagnation of blood and lymph, should as often as possible to keep the leg in such a position that the stop was located higher than the hip joint. When going to sleep under the leg also need to put a cushion or pillow, achieving a higher location of the foot relative to the head.
- Applying cold. In the first days after the arthroscopy is recommended to apply cold to the knee to prevent the development of the inflammatory process.
- Compulsory wearing of the fixing bandage. To allow a stillness, and, consequently, the rest of the knee joint. A bandage is applied, starting from the ankle to the mid thigh.
Development of the rehabilitation program
As a rule, the activities included in the rehabilitation programmes for recovery after surgery, knee arthroscopy, are developed and assigned by the attending physician. In each case they are individual, depending on the specifics of the violation, the complexity of the operation, the patient’s condition and other factors.
To pick their own exercises, physical therapy (physical therapy) impossible.
At achievement of certain results, the program is reviewed, and after the diagnosis, the doctor allowed to move on to more complex actions.
All types of exercises after knee arthroscopy can be performed at home. They don’t take up a lot of time in duration, but usually require a daily workout 2-3 times a day. If one feels the deterioration of the knee joint, both at rest and during movement, there is pain or swelling, you definitely need to tell the doctor. It is possible that the complex gives a strong stress on the joint, therefore it needs to be adjusted.
In the process of rehabilitation of the knee joint must be protected by a knee pad or brace. Usually it is administered immediately after the arthroscopy. To buy ortez need individually. Good, quality device will support the joint throughout the recovery period and prevent complications.
Rehabilitation in stationary conditions
The first time after the knee arthroscopy rehabilitation begins in the hospital. For a successful recovery is carried out such actions and procedures:
- the intake of antibiotics;
- taking anticoagulants;
- wearing compression underwear or compression bandage;
- cryotherapeutic event;
- carrying lymph drainage procedures (manual or hardware massage);
- taking anti-inflammatory drugs;
- if required, use an orthosis, a variation of which is selected based on the complexity of the operation.
From complex physical therapy on the first day after arthroscopy allowed to use isometric muscle tension femur and tibia, as well as movement at the ankle and hip. On the second day you can add a passive movement in the knee.
Rehabilitation after discharge from hospital
To the recovery was successful, after discharge from the hospital to continue rehabilitation activities. You need to do the following:
- strictly follow the instructions of the podiatrist to observe shows the duration and frequency of procedures, regularly undergo examination and make a diagnosis;
- often keep foot elevated;
- required to wear a device (orthosis, bandages, knee pad and other ancillary items) recommended by the attending physician;
- take anti-inflammatory and other drugs, observing regulations;
- if you need to do lymphatic drainage massage.
Motor activity in the early days were limited, but allowed a brief walk with a light load and required using available tools, for example, crutches. When you exercise, aimed at recovery after arthroscopy of the meniscus (for example, resection of the meniscus),to rely on there about a month. That also requires a cosmetic surgery of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL).First is a slight emphasis on the foot, and then, in the absence of pain and discomfort, there is a gradual increase of the load on the knee.
Conduct physical therapy after arthroscopy
The main primary indications of physical therapy after arthroscopy of the knee joint are isometric contraction of the muscles of the thighs, calves, buttocks. In addition, at the initial stage of recovery, patients are recommended the implementation of passive movements in the knee joint (the time depends on the condition of the tissues after the surgery). Over time, add elements therapeutic exercises that strengthen the muscular frame of the knee. It can be as exercise with the joint, and exercises with a harness, swimming.
Between 4 and 6 a week
Depending on the condition of the knee joint is shown walking with support or without it (you can take the cane or crutches), with the use of an orthosis. By the end of the first month of rehabilitation the patient may have to bend the knee to 90 degree angle (during shoulder arthroscopy, meniscus – indications). The complex of therapeutic exercises aimed at strengthening muscles. It is possible to use stationary Bicycle, swimming pool.
From 6 to 8 a week
Can be supplemented with complex strength training. At this time, the strength of the ligamentous apparatus is still not high enough, therefore a large load is unacceptable. Should be entirely excluded from complex movements such as: twisting, Mahi, sharp flexion and extension.
The period from 8 to 12 a week
Restrictions on the walk there. There are various exercises on the exercise bike, the platform in the pool. Carefully executed attacks and steps to the side. The goal of physiotherapy in this period is the strengthening of the muscular frame and the development of motor coordination.
During each period after arthroscopy in the rehabilitation process it is necessary to observe moderation in exercise, as excessive activity may contribute to the inflammatory process. A consistent approach and strict adherence to the instructions will prevent the development of complications after arthroscopy of the knee joint.