Renal ultrasound: shows that, holding size
- Renal pathology in pregnant women
- Nephropathy pregnant
- Renal pathology in the fetus and newborn
This pair on doesn’t manifest itself in a healthy person, diligently and round the clock doing their important work. Kidney disease are various causes and manifestations. Some of them are successfully treated, others can make a person disabled for life. An important place in the diagnosis of renal disease is a method of ultrasound. Many patients are concerned with the question: how is a renal ultrasound?
The technique of ultrasound examination of kidneys
The study is completely painless. It has no complications or contraindications, can be performed frequently, including in pregnant women and children.
What are the indicators evaluated by the doctor during the ultrasound and their normal values
- Kidney paired organ, therefore, in normal two of them, and they should be about the same size. However, they will not be perfectly symmetrical, and identical, like other paired organs, they will vary slightly from each other. Healthy kidneys shaped like beans. Right kidney, anatomical and morphological characteristics of the organism is below the left on one of the thoracic vertebrae.
- Dimensions are measured in millimeters. Permissible difference in size of a healthy kidney is not more than 20 mm. normal length in an adult from one hundred to one hundred twenty mm. Width is from fifty to sixty mm and a thickness of forty or fifty mm. in children standard sizes vary widely and depend on the age, weight and height of the child. Therefore, to correctly interpret the results of the survey will be able only a pediatrician or child neurologist.
- The thickness and structure of the parenchyma (outer layer of renal tissue that performs its main function: filtration of urine) depends on age and ranges from fifteen to twenty five mm, for elderly people, it becomes thinner and can make eleven mm. Layer of parenchyma in a child can range from ninety to one hundred and eighty mm. How a particular figure is good, can estimate only specialist, based on the weight and growth of the child. Infants whose growth has not reached eighty centimeters, this parameter is not evaluated. The fabric (structure) of normal parenchyma is homogeneous, without inclusions, cavity formations and seals.
- State Cup-pelvis-plating system (part of the body, having a cavity structure that receives urine). In normal adults, the width of the renal pelvis does not exceed eleven mm. the Exception is pregnant women who have normal gradual expansion of the renal pelvis system with the growth of the fetus, late in pregnancy the width of the pelvis female can reach twenty-eight mm.
- The ureters, long muscular tubes which connect the pelvis to the bladder. Healthy ureters are not visible on ultrasound.
- Education of high and low density, echogenic shadows in healthy people are not determined.
Significant sex differences in the normal structure of kidneys are there.
The disease, which can diagnose ultrasound
Stones in pelvis and ureter
The stones with ultrasound look like an acoustic shadow. It should be noted that ultrasound is not a reliable way to diagnose stones, as is often the stones can be taken fat tissue or the vascular site of the authority. Reliable considered only the definition of stones larger than four mm. Also, ultrasound can be seen in the sand. The presence of stones in pyelocaliceal system and ureters may indicate the extension of these bodies due to the formation of barriers to the outflow of urine. But this phenomenon can cause not only stones, but a tumor. Despite this, the ultrasound to detect stones is important because it allows you to see the presence of pathology and forces the doctor to prescribe additional methods of diagnostics.
Cancer and other tumor masses are seen during research as a spot of higher density. Cancer large may deform the structure of the kidneys, impairing their outer contour. About cancer can testify the change of blood flow in the body, which can be assessed with color Doppler study.
Cancer growing in CHLS, may interfere with the flow of urine, which is an ultrasound will show an extension of the renal pelvis and compression of the parenchyma. In the later stages of the cancer parenchyma begins to atrophy, which is manifested in the change of its structure.
Will be able to evaluate the ultrasound and the status of the regional lymph nodes, which will tell the specialist about the presence or absence of metastasis and spread of the cancer beyond the kidney.
The disadvantage of the ultrasonic method of cancer detection is a high percentage of overdiagnosis. But this disadvantage is eliminated when conducting additional diagnostic methods. The importance of ultrasonography in the detection of cancer and other oncological processes is high, as is often the growth of the tumor has no symptoms. The symptoms appear only at late stages, when there is no treatment process and prognosis is poor.
Cyst is a cavity formation within the renal parenchyma. Education is defined as low density. Cysts are benign formations and at small sizes do not affect the function of the body. However, there is a serious hereditary disease – polycystic kidney disease. This disease up to forty years may have no symptoms. Ultrasonography allows accurate diagnosis: kidney has a lumpy shape, the fabric is changed multiple parenchymal hypoechogenic formations, between them are defined atrophic changes.
Is determined by cavity formation with the liquid inside. Differential diagnosis is carried out with single renal cyst. Usually the diagnosis is established on the basis of information on associated symptoms (fever, changes in blood and urine, sharp pain in the projection of the kidneys), which does not happen in the presence of the cyst. Abscesses are single and multiple.
Inflammatory diseases (acute and chronic pyelonephritis)
Ultrasound of the kidneys pyelonephritis is characterized by enlargement of the affected organ, CHLS can be slightly expanded, walls are sealed.
In chronic processes can be revealed foci of sclerosis and calcification in tissue parenchyma.
Acute renal failure (ARF)
ARF – acute condition characterized by sudden loss of excretory functions in the background of other pathological process (sepsis, acute poisoning, intoxication). Usually the diagnosis is established on the basis of a set of clinical symptoms: severe condition of the patient, the complete absence of urine. Confirm the diagnosis of changes in laboratory tests: a significant increase in creatinine and urea in the blood.
The role of ultrasound in the diagnosis of this disease is reduced to the assessment of the reduction of volume of circulating fluid: Contracting; hollow vein, other veins that have insufficient content. Also ultrasound helps to confirm the diagnosis of AKI: the resumption of blood supply to the Vena cava, quickly recovers its shape.
Chronic renal failure (CRF)
A condition characterized by a gradual decrease in the ability of the kidney to carry out its function. When ultrasound is determined by degeneration and atrophy of the parenchyma of the organ.
A condition characterized by a change in the kidney to its localization: it can fall down. There are three degrees of this condition. The second and third stages appear pain in lower back, due to the inflection of the ureter may decrease the function of an organ. It may be poor circulation. Ultrasound allows us to see pathology and to assess the state of the parenchyma and its blood supply.
Anomalies of development
Many people before they reach advanced age, may be unaware that they have, for example, only one kidney, or, conversely, three by doubling one side. To learn about the features of the structure of your body will also allow an ultrasound.
Renal pathology in pregnant women
A complex of pathological changes developing in the late stages of pregnancy third trimester. Characterized by the appearance of edema of the limbs, increase in blood pressure and appearance of protein in the urine. The state is able to progress and require hospitalization for observation and treatment. With ultrasound can be found to be in breach of renal blood flow and necrosis of the tubules and the cortical layer of the renal parenchyma.
The common pathology in pregnant women in the later stages is the development of pyelonephritis. The picture of the ultrasound examination will meet the signs of this disease in other categories of patients.
Renal pathology in the fetus and newborn
A relatively common congenital disorders, which allows to diagnose the ultrasound, the fetus and infants is pyelectasis – extension of the renal pelvis. The process can be one — and bilateral. In most cases, the pathology spontaneously by age two, but it requires monitoring by a pediatrician, the revised structure of the body can lead to the accession of infectious processes.
Also, the ultrasound allows to detect severe congenital renal pathology of the fetus, which allows you to prepare parents to the emergence of a special child and to plan further treatment.
Quite common are cancer processes in children. They may long to not have symptoms and are diagnosed as a finding on ultrasound.
The question often arises patients: where you can do ultrasound of the kidneys? Currently, this type of diagnostics is available in almost every medical institution, including small settlements. In order to perform the procedure free of charge, you must contact the district physician who is assessing the evidence, give directions to the nearest branch of functional diagnostics.
You must remember that if the doctor on the basis of the requirements of the complaints suspect the disease to be treated which is urgently needed, a survey will be performed, even in the presence of the queue, without delay and free of charge for emergency indications.
If you wait in line at municipal polyclinic no strength and desire, you can always go to a private clinic. In this case, perform the procedure possible, typically on the same day.
Despite the fact that the Internet and other sources of information often offer themselves to interpret the conclusion of certain surveys, should not do this. Even experienced doctors are not going to establish an accurate diagnosis based only on data from one survey as ultrasound signs of many pathological processes can be very similar. Sometimes even a healthy body may arouse suspicion, such as «Brokeback kidney» — individual feature of the structure, can be mistaken for cancer or stone.