Somatoscope: indications, conduct, results and their evaluation
Somatoscope is the definition of indicators of physical development, which is performed to assess the strength capacity of organism. The study shows the possibility of performing active physical work. It is important to estimate this parameter in the younger and adolescent age, when there are the greatest changes in the development of the body.
The effect on the developing organism have the following factors:
- Condition of the musculoskeletal system(skull, chest, posture and health of spine, muscle development).
- Development of subcutaneous fat.
- Development of the reproductive system.
- The condition of the skin and mucous membranes.
- The condition of the teeth.
The methodology of the study
Evaluation of posture should be carried out in several positions: front, side and rear. When the doctor examines the patient, he carefully assesses the presence of asymmetry in the shoulder girdle, head position, shape, and appearance of the chest, extremities and pelvis. The main thing – to evaluate the symmetry.
When inspected the skull, necessarily evaluated the difference between transverse and anteroposterior distance. The shape of the skull may be meso-, daliha and brachicephalicus. Necessarily need to to evaluate the brain structure of the skull important anatomical structures on the skull.
Be sure the shoulder belt is inspected for asymmetry. You need to carefully evaluate, is one shoulder higher than the other. After the shoulder belt inspect the chest.
In the process of somatoscope the doctor evaluates the development process of the entire body, take into account the deviation.
The cylindrical form of the thorax is the most common. It is characterized by a gradual and uniform contraction on both sides. Rib under the middle slope, and the blades pressed to his chest. Flat chest is more common in children. If it occurs in adulthood, this may indicate disease of the musculoskeletal system or a disease that causes the asthenia of the organism. The ribs in this case down. The blades are called the pterygoid in this case, because separated from the ribs and chest. Conical thorax is not usually found in normal at any age. Can occur in athletes as exceptions.
In various diseases, there may be a deformity of the chest. Rickets rachitic rosary gives to the ribs, the chest deformity in the form of a keel. Emphysema chest takes a barrel shape.
The conduct of somatoscope for assessing the health of the lower extremities
The patient in this case is smooth and straight. Feet should touch the knees and medial ankles (internal). In that case, if the knees touch, but ankles – no, talking about X-shaped legs. As one of the variants of the norm, they can occur in children. Also, this form of the legs is observed in obese individuals.
If the legs are joined only at the ankles, talking about O-shaped legs. As a rule, is one of the signs of rickets. Another added strain of the thighs and shins, so-called «saber legs», as well as thickening of the epiphyses of bones.
Must be evaluated of the foot. In children may develop flat feet, which is dangerous for the future health of the joints. The patient leaves the imprint of a naked foot on the paper or other surface. Next is the line connecting the most prominent point on the inner edge of the foot. From the midpoint of a line constructed perpendicular to the outer edge of the foot. After this is calculated, how many percent of the whole line is a segment that passes through the colored portion of the foot. Normal stop if this part is up to 50%. Flattened– up to 60% over 60% – flat.
Assessment of the spine
Inspection takes place in a sagittal (lateral) and front (straight) planes. In the lateral projection are measured curves of the spine, exist in the norm, as well as the presence of pathological curvatures, lordosis and kyphosis. In direct, frontal plane evaluates the degree of scoliosis. Curvature of the spine can be in left or right side.
Violations can be of several degrees:
- Grade I – functional disorders that are easily remedied by exercise. They also disappear when the muscle strain.
- Grade II – violations are more persistent, which do not disappear with normal muscle tension.
- III degree – to the persistent violations are added to the deformation of the bone of the apparatus, particularly the chest and pelvic bones.
Estimated number and condition of muscle tissue.
- I degree – the underdeveloped muscular system. The relief is not observed, the muscle is inelastic. With the abdomen hanging. Muscle strength assessment is below average.
- II degree – the average degree of muscle development. The relief already indicated, muscle, elastic, tummy tucked up, the chest has a cylindrical shape. The indicators of muscular strength expressed medium.
- Grade III – well developed muscles. The relief is pronounced, the muscles have elasticity, have a pronounced extent. Thorax cylindrical, muscular power is developed above the average.
The doctor must evaluate all the parameters of anthropometry, which are important for understanding all changes in the body!
Estimation of parameters of physical development is important for timely correction of disturbances of development of the organism. As a rule, they are related to children’s age and development of rickets. If untreated, rickets can lead to serious consequences and, in severe cases – to disability. Therefore, in children, the body parameters are evaluated most carefully. In the early stages of any violations corrected easily.