Than the harmful and dangerous x-rays for human health?
Diagnostic methods to date are the most common means of detecting abnormalities of internal organs. High penetrating ability of x-rays allows to obtain a negative image of the required part of a patient’s body, showing all anatomical structures and pathological changes. Surely there is no person who does not know about the dangers of x-ray radiation and possible adverse effects after a large number of studies. Than harmful x-rays, and what could be the influence of x-rays on the human body?
The negative effects of x-rays
X-rays are a flow of electromagnetic waves, the length of which is between ultraviolet and gamma radiation. Radiation, the underlying method has ionizing properties that can cause abnormal changes in the cells of the human body, thus, the higher the radiation exposure, the more serious the consequences of x-ray irradiation.
Harmful x-ray, and what might be the consequences of exceeding the recommended standards? As already mentioned, the most sensitive to radiation are the blood, therefore, consider the following possible deviations:
- Minor changes in the composition of blood after low doses of irradiation.
- Leukemia – reducing the number of cells and the violation of their structure, whereby the body becomes vulnerable, reduced immunity and there are shortages in the whole organism.
- Erythropenia – a drop in the level of erythrocytes (red blood cells), responsible for transporting oxygen. As a result, organs and tissues begin to experience oxygen starvation.
- Thrombocytopenia – reduction in the number of platelets, the function of which is blood coagulation. As a consequence, increases the risk of bleeding.
In addition, frequent radiography and may cause other disorders such as:
- The growth of malignant tumors (most of this exposed skin, bone, mammary glands, ovaries, blood, thyroid and lungs).
- Premature aging of the skin and the whole organism.
- Pathological processes in the crystalline lens with the subsequent development of cataracts.
- Immunosuppression up to immune deficiency, causing the body becomes susceptible to various infections.
- Violation of metabolic processes.
- Impotence in men and loss of eggs in women.
- In children, the violation of the physical and mental development.
In order to understand how harmful x-rays, you should know that ionizing radiation is dangerous only when prolonged exposure to intense. The use of radiography for diagnostic purposes involves a short irradiation of low doses. Modern medical equipment and is equipped with digital sensors that reduce radiation exposure several times, so diagnosis using x-rays is considered to be relatively safe even in the case of multiple scans. It is revealed that a single exposure digital x-rays increases the risk of developing cancer not more than 0,001%, which is very little.
The dependence of expression of adverse consequences of radiation dose
As already mentioned, the severity of the consequences depends on the level of radiation exposure and duration of scanning. The dose depends on the form of imaging and model x-ray machine. Modern devices give minimum load on the body, thereby enabling to obtain the most accurate image of the desired anatomical region.
The effects of a single irradiation with different doses (SV):
- 100 people die after some hours or days due to CNS.
- 10-50 – loss occurs within 1-2 weeks because of the numerous hemorrhages in the internal organs.
- 4-5 – death occurs after one to two months due to lesions of the bone marrow.
- 1 – developing radiation sickness.
To understand whether the dangerous x-rays carried out with the aim of diagnosis is to compare radiation doses from different types of studies:
- Fluoroscopy, digital/film – 0,03–0,06 mSv and 0.15 to 0.20, respectively. The most modern apparatus for fluoroscopy is able to give a clear image at minimum load at 0.002 mSv, which is 10 times less devices-predecessors.
- X-rays of the abdominal cavity from 0.15 to 0.4 mSv.
- Dental radiography with intraoral radiology – 0,015–0,03 mSv, classical intraoral radiography is 0.1 – 0.3 mSv.
In the event of fluoroscopy (examination of the internal organs on fluoreszierenden the screen) the load on the body is much lower, however the total radiation dose is ultimately higher due to the longer process of research. An average of 15 minutes inspecting the level of the received radiation is 2-3,5 mSv.
CT scan requires more time to build accurate images, and therefore the radiation dose is higher: up to 8 to 11 mSv depending on the object of study.
Pathogenic action of x-rays ends immediately after turning off the apparatus. Radiation does not accumulate in the body, so it makes no sense to take measures to accelerate its withdrawal from the body.
How to protect yourself from unwanted consequences?
There are three ways to protect yourself from harmful effects of ionizing radiation:
- Time and between studies – if you do not exceed the recommended norms and to carry out scanning according to the radiation passport, the body will not be harmed in any way. Has the value and the duration of the study, so it is advisable to get checked out by professionals who are able to minimize the time spent by the patient in a radioactive environment.
- Individual protection measures – x-rays are not a point and scattered, so the risk of exposure of neighbouring areas. This is because during scanning it is recommended to wear special lead aprons that can reflect harmful rays.
- Tests on modern devices – digital devices have made the study virtually safe, so it is better to scan in modern clinics. Unfortunately, many government clinics are equipped with machines of the old sample.
Any diagnostic method has its advantages and disadvantages. When thinking about the harmfulness of x-rays should not forget that the pictures do only when indicated for diagnosis and plan of treatment. Wrong diagnosis and treatment can lead to more serious consequences than a single scan in the x-ray apparatus.