That shows EGD of the stomach: norm, pathology
Fibrogastroduodenoscopy, or just the FPS – the gold standard in the diagnosis of diseases of the gastrointestinal tract. This method allows to detect pathological changes in the mucosa of the digestive tract (stomach and 12-perstny gut), as well as to conduct additional research methods such as biopsy. That shows EGD of the stomach? With the examination, your doctor gets the opportunity to visually inspect the inner lining of the authority to investigate her suspicious places, and to perform a biopsy and a series of simple surgical procedures (resection of polyps, stopping bleeding, etc.). Patients are referred for EGD only if they have signs of possible disease of the stomach (epigastric pain, nausea, etc.) and compliance with indications and contraindications to the procedure.
Examination of the gastrointestinal tract, must be conducted in compliance with indications and contraindications, as well as a highly qualified specialist.
EGD of the stomach performed to those patients who have symptoms of the body or suspicions about other diseases:
- Pain in the upper abdomen associated with food intake or, conversely, occur when hunger that is so characteristic of gastritis and gastric ulcer and 12 duodenal ulcer.
- A feeling of discomfort or burning behind the breastbone that may be a manifestation of insufficiency of the cardia and gastroesophageal reflux disease.
- Suspected growth of benign or malignant tumors in the stomach.
- Violations of motor activity of the esophagus and stomach.
- Frequent nausea or vomiting.
- Study 12 duodenal ulcer indicated for indirect signs of pancreatitis, often associated with the violation of digestion of fatty foods and pain in the left abdomen.
Thanks EGD, the doctor may look at the display screen and see all the changes in the mucous membrane of the stomach directly at the time of the study, resulting in significantly increased diagnostic accuracy.
In all these cases, endoscopic examination of the upper digestive tract allows you to see the pathological changes in the organs. However, there are a number of contraindications, in which EGD is not done:
- violation of patency of the esophagus with regard to its stenosis or functional impairments;
- severe somatic disease with lesions of the respiratory or cardiovascular system.
If a person discovered contraindications to endoscopy, the procedure is not performed, and choose other methods of examination, such as an ultrasound.
Preparation for EGD
The main task of the doctor to exam – to prepare the patient to it. It is important to conduct some conversations with the man, to explain to him the necessity of the upcoming survey, its implementation, as well as to familiarize with all the risks inherent in this diagnostic method. All patients should be encouraged to make a General analysis of blood and urine tests that may help in the detection of concomitant diseases of internal organs.
In addition, the patient should refrain from eating for 8-10 hours before endoscopy, especially if he has a failure of the cardia. In this period of time you can drink a small amount of plain water. Such measures are necessary to prevent the development of nausea and vomiting and possible reflux of stomach contents into the esophagus and respiratory tract.
Before the procedure it is important to exclude drug Allergy in humans, as during EGD can be applied local anesthetics.
Endoscopy of the stomach
By EGD of the stomach revealed a variety of diseases of this organ. However, the high information content of the procedures can only be achieved if the rules for its implementation.
Performing EGD of the stomach should always be performed only in appropriate conditions and by trained physicians.
All the studies carried out in a special endoscopy room. The patient is placed on a couch, most often on the left side. With local anesthetic spray to achieve anesthesia of the mucosa of the oral cavity. Why is it necessary? This allows you to get rid of the gag reflex, which develops with the introduction of the fiberscope. After the anesthesia kicked in, the patient beginning to enter the endoscope through the mouth. Gradually pushing the device into the esophagus, the doctor starts to inspect the mucous membranes and can detect abnormalities even in the first phases of the survey.
After inspection of the gastric mucosa can be examined with the 12-duodenum, as shown, when suspected concomitant diseases of this localization (tumors, ulcers, etc.). After completing the procedure, the doctor gently removes the endoscope. If the study was performed using only local anesthesia, the patient stays in the hospital for 20-30 minutes. If there were used General anesthesia, the patient appoint a regime ward in the hospital for one day.
Possible consequences and complications
High security EGD of the stomach is determined by proper preparation and patient compliance with technique of study. However, as with any medical method, endoscopy may lead to certain consequences:
- Increase stomach acidity with the possible development of small erosions and reflux esophagitis, which is particularly frequently observed in patients with insufficiency of the cardia and the hernia hiatal.
- The violation of the integrity of the mucosa or the entire wall, which can lead to the development of inflammation in the mediastinum or abdominal cavity.
- The mechanical portion of a transition of the esophagus into the stomach, which can cause the cardiac insufficiency and the subsequent development of gastroesophageal reflux disease.
- The result of damage to blood vessels may develop intraventricular hemorrhage of varying severity.
- If you are using medicines for local or General anesthesia is always a risk of Allergy to the medication in the form of skin rashes, itching, angioedema, etc.
If the patient determined by the above-mentioned complications, the procedure should be stopped and to proceed immediately to their treatment.
EGD is an irreplaceable method of diagnostics of diseases of the stomach and duodenum 12, which enables the Clinician to visually inspect the mucosa of the digestive tract and to identify their disease. This feature of the treatments and causes its wide application in large number of diseases of the upper digestive tract. The following indications and contraindications to the procedure allows to increase the informative value of EGD and to reduce the risk of development of undesirable complications.