Ultrasound of abdominal vessels
The technique of Doppler ultrasound of the abdominal vessels is based on application of Doppler effect. The method consists in determining the change in frequency and wavelength of a sound wave reflected from the surface of internal organs, the vascular wall and the blood elements. The reflected waves are determined by sensor and are generated into electrical impulses. The computer processes the information received and in real time displays the monitor image with colored symbols multidirectional blood flow. Arteries and veins are highlighted with different colors – red and blue.
The study of the abdominal vessels
The largest arteries and veins supply blood to the abdominal cavity, the retroperitoneum – kidneys, adrenal glands and pancreas. Ultrasound (Doppler) study is a highly informative method in the study of the vessels retroperitoneal (abdominal aorta, inferior Vena cava and its branches, a steam room and polonara vein, thoracic lymphatic duct, and lymph nodes). During the procedure, the research exposed visceral (nourishing the internal organs) and the parietal vessels and lymph nodes. The first is Zaliakalnis trunk, originating from the aorta and its branches: the hepatic artery, gastric artery, pancreaticoduodenal artery; gastroduodenal artery, omental branches and other smaller vessels, which are branches of the above vessels. To parietal (parietal), includes: the lower artery of the diaphragm, the lumbar arteries, the paired and unpaired branches of the abdominal aorta.
Reasons and indications for examination
Indications for treatment professionals can serve many different complaints and situations. Lesions of various departments will give different symptoms. The indications for examination of the renal vessels – with the appearance of pain in the lumbar region, the deviation from the norm in laboratory values in the study urine, the detection of tumor masses or cysts of the kidney injury. As a preventive measure should be examined in the presence of history of chronic or acute inflammatory processes in the pyelocaliceal system (chronic pyelonephritis, etc.), postoperative periods, hypertension.
When USGD abdominal vessels simultaneously examined lymph nodes. Excessive enlargement of lymph nodes (1 cm) is an indication for a diagnostic puncture. It is needed for the differential diagnosis of a pathological process (cancer, septic inflammation).
Hepatic vessels are surveyed with detection of an increase relative to the norm of the enzymatic indicators in the biochemical analysis of blood, pain in the right hypochondrium, with bruises in the area of projection of the liver and injuries, and for chronic and acute diseases (hepatitis, cholecystitis etc.).
In the vicinity of the inferior mesenteric artery are the intestinal lymph nodes, normally they have a diameter of less than 1 cm Increase in Central lymph nodes may cause narrowing of its lumen, leading to ischemia of the intestine.
Ultrasound of the abdominal aorta is carried out if you suspect atherosclerosis, systemic vasculitis, suspected the presence of an aneurysm, and more. The reasons for going to an ultrasound specialist can vary. When you are unclear the cause of symptoms conducted a comprehensive research study of several departments of the vascular system and lymph nodes.
In preparation for the examination
The day before the survey to exclude from the diet the following products:
- Black bread
- Dairy products
- Vegetables that cause excessive gas content of the gut (beans, cabbage)
- Fruit, causing excessive fumes in the intestine (plums, grapes)
- Sweet and flour dishes
48 hours before the test is recommended to take activated charcoal 4-5 tablets 3 times a day, or any carminative (simethicone, meteospazmil) according to the instructions. If there are violations of digestion – take enzymes (Pancreatin, Mezim, CREON) after a meal. The final meal for 5 hours of bedtime. The study is carried out on an empty stomach.
Ultrasound of the abdominal aorta performed in the supine position. Normal its diameter tapering to the distal departments and does not exceed the norm equal to 3, see the Size of her branches — the iliac artery not more than 15 mm.
Please note! Ultrasound of the aorta is not only informative procedure for atherosclerosis and systemic vasculitis. In case of doubtful results you should consult doctor to select an additional method of examination (e.g. CT, MRI).
In the study of renal artery position the patient on his back, then on his side. The doctor calculates the renal-aortic ratio of peak systolic blood flow velocity and resistance index of the vascular wall. These data will be used to determine the degree of stenosis of renal arteries and their branches, which is especially important in renal hypertension.
Study of the portal vein is performed on the back with a half-twist on the left side. Normal blood flow in the portal Vienna one and the same person can vary during the day, increasing after a meal and decreasing after load. The diameter is measured at the point of greatest expansion – at the confluence of leenalee and upper mesenteric veins, and in norm it is equal to 10±1.0 see the Doctor measures the index of stagnation of the portal vein, the improvement of which may indicate liver cirrhosis.
Examination of the hepatic artery is carried out in the same position. Is a branch of the celiac trunk. Explore the divisions of the artery and the surrounding lymph nodes. There is considerable anatomical variation in its origin. The study telecalling of the trunk and the upper mesenteric artery is held on the back with raised head end of the couch about 30 degrees. The clinic is accompanied by a sharp narrowing of sections of these arteries, this shows stenosis of more than 70%.
Uzdg vessels – low-cost, highly informative, non-invasive procedure. Does not have age restrictions, perhaps for pregnant women. Is the gold standard in many diseases of blood vessels such as aneurysm, Takayasu’s disease.