Ultrasound of the gallbladder: preparation, testimony, Norma
Diseases of the biliary system are manifold. With the help of ultrasound can detect almost all types of pathology in this region.
The gallbladder diseases that can be diagnosed using ultrasound
- Acute cholecystitis – acute inflammation of the wall caused by bacterial infection. The disease develops acutely.
- Chronic cholecystitis – change the walls on the background of chronic inflammatory process. The development of the disease on the background of stone formation is called calculous cholecystitis.
- Gall-stone disease – education stones in the bladder and biliary ducts.
- Biliary sludge – a violation of the rheological qualities of the bile with clots.
- Holsters – the formation of cholesterol plaques on the wall of the bladder.
- Polyps – benign growths of the mucosa.
- Dyskinesia – impaired motor skills-bladder and biliary ducts.
- Neoplasms – cancer processes.
- Dropsy – an extension on it due to blockage of stone or tumor.
- Gangrene – death of tissue wall.
- Perforation – a violation of integrity.
In preparation for the examination
For good visualization of the biliary organs with proper preparation to the study. The main obstacle that impedes the visibility of organs of abdominal cavity on ultrasound, are gases in the intestines (flatulence). The formation of gases contributes to a food rich in fiber: bread, vegetables, cereals, fruits. Therefore, to prepare in the week before the planned study from these products should be abandoned. You should not eat before an ultrasound dairy products, chips, crackers, beer, kvass, wine.
The training plan includes the bowel cleansing the day before examination. If there are problems with a chair, you can perform a cleansing enema or take laxatives. Dinner the evening before the procedure should be easy and early (not later than nineteen hundred hours).
On the day of the ultrasound before the procedure you must refrain from eating and drinking completely. If a study is planned towards the end of the day, in the morning you can eat a light Breakfast.
If you prepare yourself with the proper diet the study failed to take enzymes (Pancreatin), as well as the means to eliminate flatulence (smectite, espumizan). This method completely does not compensate for proper training, but will significantly improve the visualization of bladder.
The procedure is performed using special ultrasonic device. The study is completely safe and virtually painless. Is noninvasive (does not disturb the integrity of tissues). The inspection is conducted by a special sensor. The sensor is directed by the doctor on the surface of the patient’s abdomen, in the projection of the examined organ.
To improve the transmission of waves through the layers of the abdominal wall to the skin before inspecting a special gel which is easily removed after the procedure with a cloth or towel. The gel leaves no residue on clothes. To better see the body, the doctor can pressure sensor to the wall of the abdomen.
During the study the patient is lying on his back. Sometimes additional examination is performed in the position on the left side or in knee-elbow position.
To evaluate the gall bladder to apply a functional test with a load. In this case, the patient performed an ultrasound on an empty stomach, after which he is asked to take food, preferably fat, for example, you can eat a sandwich with butter, sour cream or cream. After the test meal are sequentially performed three ultrasonic inspection authority, at intervals of ten and two times for fifteen minutes. To the latter procedure, the size of the authority shall be reduced by seventy percent.
Normal value of ultrasonic research
The size of the body of adults in normal can vary considerably: from four to fourteen inches in length and two to four inches in width. The rate of wall thickness to four inches. The size of the common bile duct the main bile duct – normally should not exceed seven inches.
In addition to size, during the study, the doctor evaluates the presence of lesions and the acoustic shadow (tumors, polyps, cholesterol plaques) in the cavity of the body, normally they shouldn’t be. If you have the stones, the study shows their sizes, quantity, whether there is cohesion with the wall mobility.
As it is often necessary to perform ultrasound of the biliary tract
In chronic diseases of the gallbladder ultrasound is recommended at least once a year not to miss the progression of the disease. In identifying a large number of stones, and cancer processes and cholesterol, your doctor may recommend more frequent ultrasound monitoring (two or three times a year).
You should regularly conduct ultrasound and after removal of the gallbladder. As the main indication for the cholecystectomy (surgery to remove the gallbladder) is gallstones a disease, and after surgery the stones can continue to form in the bile ducts causing their dilatation and perforation.
In addition to stone formation, after gallbladder removal often develops PHAB (postcholecystectomy pain). This condition after removal of the bladder is associated with impaired ability of the sphincter of Oddi, the confluence of the bile duct into the duodenum, to perform its function.
To diagnose PHAB can also use ultrasound test meal which shows whether there are pathological changes in the sphincter after removal of the gall bladder (spasm or disease).
If the ultrasound showed no changes in the biliary system, the size of the organs and ducts in the normal conduct follow-up studies only when the complaints.