X-ray of human jaw: indications, conduct, results
With the development of medical technology, specialists have got many opportunities to diagnose dental diseases. The most popular are the methods, allowing to obtain a desired anatomical region, that is why x-ray examinations are the major methods of diagnosis of pathologies of the maxillo-facial region. X-rays of the jaw allows time to identify serious pathology and to find a suitable treatment plan.
A description of the method
At the heart of any x-ray examination lies in the ability of x-rays in varying degrees, to be absorbed by the tissues of the human body. In the study of bone structures of ionizing radiation retained in the solid mineralized bone of the jaw, so in the picture it will appear as a bright area. Soft tissue miss the rays almost not delaying them, so the picture they have a darker color. Due to the ability of bone structures to hold the ionizing radiation they are clearly visible in the pictures, this explains the highly informative x-ray examination.
Radiography is the main method of examination of the upper and lower jaw and can be prescribed by a dentist, oral and maxillofacial surgeon or a trauma surgeon in the following cases:
- For the diagnosis of abnormalities of the jaws in the child and adult – congenital cleft hard/soft palate, impaired growth and proper development (micrognathia, macrognathia, microgenia), the deformation of the bite.
- If you suspect an infectious-inflammatory and specific diseases – osteomyelitis, periostitis, syphilis, actinomycosis, tuberculosis or bone necrosis of the jaw.
- To identify the various acquired defects obtained as a result of trauma or removal of cancer formations.
- Suspicion of the presence of a false joint.
- In the diagnosis of benign and malignant tumors.
X-ray of the mandible or maxilla often is indicated for suspicion of human fracture or dislocation, painful mouth opening, swelling and pain in the maxillofacial region.
Contraindications for radiography of the jaw a bit:
- The serious condition of the patient.
What you can see in the pictures?
The images obtained after x-ray scanning of the upper or lower jaw, you can see some structural and anatomical structure of the body:
- Defects – cracks, fractures, the presence or absence of bone fragments.
- Pathological processes in the bone – pockets of vacuum to tissue, seals, thickening or thinning of the cortical plate.
- Areas of necrosis the sequestrum.
- The sclerotic process.
- Various periosteal layering, osteophytes (bone spurs).
In preparation for the examination
Special training for x-ray examination of the upper or lower jaw is not required. You just need to come at the appointed time, taking with him all the necessary documents.
The methodology of the
Depending on the purpose x-ray examination of the upper or lower jaw can be performed in a direct, lateral or axial projection.
Video projection allows you to get a General idea of the condition of the lower jaw and is most often performed to diagnose inflammatory, oncological and traumatic diseases of the body and branches of the authority. The patient is positioned as follows: prone, face down, resting the tip of her nose and forehead on the tape. Sensor x-ray machine is installed at the occiput.
To clarify the state of the upper jaw and chin region of the mandible used nosophobia styling – the patient lies in the same position, but on the cassette rests on the nose and chin. The sensor is installed perpendicular to tape, done two shots with open and closed mouth.
X-rays in lateral projection is performed in addition to pictures in the direct projection. To fully assess the condition of the upper jaw on the received images is difficult because of the superimposition of the two halves of the skull to each other. Usually well visualized only the large and coarse defects. In the study, the patient is placed in the direction of the skull on the tape and the sensor is installed perpendicularly.
Radiography of the mandible in lateral projection is performed to diagnose the state of the body, branches and teeth of the right side of the body. The patient is placed on his side, cheek on the cassette, located at a slight angle.
The axial projection is used in the diagnosis of diseases of the lower jaw. The patient lies on his stomach, maximum head pull the chin forward, pressing against the cassette front surface of the neck and lower jaw.
The transcript of study results
To decipher the images can only experts with special qualifications. Various diseases of the upper and lower jaw are characteristic radiographic features, based on which the diagnosis is made.
Chronic periostitis: on radiographs, marked periosteal thickening, long-term course of the inflammatory process in visible areas of ossification (ossification) of the periosteum and areas of new bone around the edge of the jaw.
Acute osteomyelitis: in the pictures you can see the pockets of resorption (resorption) of bone tissue without clear boundaries.
Chronic osteomyelitis: the picture may be different depending on the type of osteomyelitis. When sekvestriruyut variant of pathology of the visible foci of resorption of different shapes with shadow necrotic masses inside. In severe cases, shows the message, sequestrations with the oral cavity. In alopecia the form of osteomyelitis is celebrated several major foci of resorption with many small sequesters within them.
Tuberculosis of the jaw: on the radiograph visible areas of resorption with resorption of spongy and compact substance, which is formed tuberculous granuloma.
Fractures of the bones on the x-rays have a characteristic type of crack. In addition to the localization of fracture on x-ray allows to specify the presence of bone fragments, and to assess the level of displacement of fragments of the jaw.