X-ray (radiography) foot: how do the norms, the results
Radiography of the foot remains the principal method of diagnosing many kinds of pathologies of the foot and ankle. Is speed and ease of implementation.
The foot may be required if:
The doctor will ask:
- How long have pains in the leg?
- What triggered their appearance, how the pain changed over time?
- Where localized pain, radiating to much (gives)?
- Relief comes whether, and under what circumstances?
- What worsens the condition?
When the inspection is determined by the range of motion in the ankle joint and foot, checked symptoms, are functional tests.
That detects x-rays?
When and under what conditions the affected foot and needed an x-ray? Listed below are the main types of pathology:
- Fractures and dislocations.
- Flat feet-the most frequent deformity of the foot and the most common cause of pain in most people. When this occurs, the variation of the transverse, longitudinal or both arches of the foot.
- Clubfoot ─ equinovarus deformity of the foot, often congenital.
- Deforming osteoarthritis ─ degenerative changes in the joint of the big toe, in which there is pain and disturbed its movement.
- Calcaneal spur ─ bony growths in the form of a spike or wedge in the region of the plantar surface of the calcaneus.
- Valgus deformity of the first toe (hallux valgus) ─ the formation of bone and cartilage ectopica in the area of the first metatarsophalangeal joint, increasing the transverse arch of the foot. Develops on the background of flatfoot. Contribute to the development of this pathology family history of the disease and the wearing of high heels.
- Avascular necrosis-the disease Keller I and II. The development of necrosis of the navicular bone in the first type of the disease or in the heads of the metatarsal bones ─ in the second.
- Involvement of the foot in the pathological process in systemic diseases: diabetes, gout, connective tissue disease, rheumatoid arthritis.
- Pathology of the ankle joint.
Features of foot pathology in children
Children are often concerned about various foot deformities:
- The youngest ─ clubfoot (more often congenital), in which the foot of a sick child is turned inwards, is in the position of plantar flexion, the reliance is on the outer edge of the foot. Observed characteristic changes in gait.
- Flat feet. Transverse and longitudinal arches of the foot is normal, usually formed by the age of 10-12. Up to this point, a deformation of the foot can still be adjusted and even the diagnosis of «flat feet» may not be entirely correct.
Among traumatic injuries of the foot 55% in the incidence of fractures is the metatarsal bones. Caused by:
- Falling on the foot of heavy objects.
- Kick the toe of the foot on a solid object.
- Other mechanisms of injury, for example contact with the child’s foot between the spokes of a Bicycle wheel.
Where is the procedure?
X-ray examination of the foot usually consists of 2 images (different projections) and conducted a public health clinic in the direction of a physician, surgeon or doctor of any other specialty in a planned manner.
In trauma centre the is done immediately when accessing the trauma.
When a patient in the hospital diagnosis is made at the stage of the patient in the emergency Department.
Also x-rays of feet and the same study load you can always go to private medical clinics and centers.
How goes the research?
X-rays of a stop takes very little time and requires no special training. The patient’s body, with the exception of physician interest region, at the time of the procedure should be protected by a special apron, shielding x-ray radiation.
Conduct x-ray of the foot in two projections: frontal and lateral. If 2-projections is insufficient for diagnosis, doing x-rays in the oblique projections (different angles) and x-ray of the foot with the load.
Stop x-rays with a load is a good method for diagnosing many pathological conditions and can be done in the direction of a number of specialists: surgeons, traumatologists, orthopedists. The foot is removed at the queue at that time, the patient stands on the investigated limb (all his weight is on one leg). The information thus obtained, applies to the angle and height of the arch of the foot and allows you to more accurately determine the degree of longitudinal flat.
The data obtained in the x-ray load, can be considered valid only if the study was conducted properly:
- The patient should postpone all weight on one limb.
- The other leg should be bent at the knee and pressed.
The most informative when x-ray diagnostics with load are lateral and oblique projection images.
X-ray diagnosis not recommended for children under 15 years, pregnant women.
However, there might be even these categories of patients, if the good exceeds the harm.
Radiation load on the body in this type of studies is small, single dose of about 0.1 mSv.
Alternative methods of diagnosis
Other methods of diagnosis of diseases of the foot:
- Ultrasound study.
- Magnetic resonance imaging.
If you want to explore magadane structure and do not need a good detailing, come to the aid of ultrasound specialist. In addition, this type of diagnosis can be used in young children and pregnant women.
MRI has no radiation exposure on the body, provides more accurate visualization of all structures (especially not bone) in the study area. Has almost no contraindications. But MRI is still not performed in the first trimester of pregnancy.
CT will provide extraordinary accuracy of diagnosis of pathology of bone and soft-tissue structures of the foot, because the resulting image is highly detailed and there is a possibility of inspection of the limb in all planes. A significant disadvantage ─ radiation exposure is slightly higher than in x-rays (due to the number of pictures, allowing you to create a 3D model of the study area).