X-ray (radiography) Turkish saddle – what is it?
Despite the new technology, craniography, or radiography of the skull, continues to apply and provides valuable information in diagnosis of diseases. To her resorted to doctors of different specialties, and the motives of the study are very different.
Understand, why do x-ray of the Turkish saddle. In some cases, resort to it if there are contraindications. What diseases are detected in the change of Turkish saddle.
It shows a picture of a skull?
Skull x-ray reveals such changes of the face and head:
- inflammation of the maxillary sinuses;
- tumors and cysts of the brain;
- fractures of the cranial bones and their characteristics;
- congenital pathology of the skull bones;
- foreign body in the nasal cavity;
- accumulation of blood.
If necessary do the aiming roentgenography of different areas of the head:
- Turkish saddle;
- nasal bones;
- the temporomandibular joints.
Aiming roentgenography of Turkish saddle make for pathology of the pituitary gland, which is located in his bed. In diseases of the neuroendocrine system pathology revealed his bones.
What is the Turkish saddle?
Bone formation with the same name is in the middle of the skull and is shaped like a saddle. In the box (pocket) Turcica is an important neuro-endocrine organ – the pituitary gland. It is a gland of internal secretion – the only one that are located in the brain. The pituitary gland produces and is responsible for the formation of many hormones, including sex. Therefore, the pathology of the Sella is of interest to doctors of many specialties – neurologists, endocrinologists, ophthalmologists and gynecologists.
In brain tumors, traumatic brain injury and increased intracranial pressure is the pressure of the Turkish saddle.
As a result of its bony walls become thinner, deform and put pressure on the pituitary gland, the function of which is disturbed. And it affects all the other glands of internal secretion.
The body is working harmoniously and smoothly through the regulation of all systems and organs by the pituitary gland. Therefore, the malfunction of many organs, doctors are primarily interested in the condition of the pituitary gland. Changes Turcica on the radiograph at the 1-or 2-projections give valuable diagnostic information about the pituitary gland.
When shown the x-ray?
The x-ray of the Turkish saddle resort in the following cases:
- injuries of the skull bones;
- delay or acceleration in the growth of the child;
- persistent headaches;
- thyroid disease;
- elevated prolactin in the blood;
- impaired spermatogenesis in men;
- the deformation of the front part of the head;
- tumors of the hypothalamic-pituitary system in neurosurgery;
- the menstrual cycle;
- blurred vision;
- when unmotivated exhaustion, sudden aging;
- the syndrome of intracranial hypertension;
- malformation of the cranium;
- persistent headaches;
- female and male infertility.
The doctor prescribes x-ray examination to confirm or exclude one of these diseases. Most often, x-ray examination of Turkish saddle a patient’s guide if you suspect a pituitary tumor.
Preparation and methodology for x-ray
Immediately prior to x-ray the patient is instructed to remove metal objects from hair, ears and neck – earrings, barrettes. Dentures will be removed. If the patient has a cochlear implant, the doctor should know about it.
The patient put or planted in front of the x-ray apparatus in such a way to get the skull in lateral projection. If you want to produce additional x-rays in the direct projection. The study lasts no more than 5 minutes.
The description of the picture and the conclusion made by the radiologist. Thus he determines the condition of the walls, and the shape and dimensions of Sella. Criteria for interpretation are the rules of the size of the bones Turcica:
- the vertical dimension from 7 to 12 mm;
- sagittal size from 9 to 15 mm;
Further define the index of the ratio of saddle height to its length. In adults the index more, and in children less than one. On the basis of received data make a conclusion about deviations in the pituitary gland, which lies in his pocket. If the radiographs revealed a tumor, the doctor describes the dimensions, structure and localization.
Under normal condition Turcica medical record indicates the absence of pathology.
From x-ray method has a drawback – it can detect only large changes of the pituitary gland, in which the deformed wall of the Turkish saddle. To clarify the diagnosis is carried out more precise studies — magnetic resonance (MRI) or computed (CT) tomography. Both of these methods detect deviations are very small in size.
Radiographic signs of a pituitary tumor
Craniogram is possible to suspect a tumor of the pituitary gland. While such a characteristic radiological signs:
- the roughness of the inner wall of the Turkish saddle;
- atrophic changes in the walls of the saddle;
- osteoporosis (rarefaction) of the bone seat;
- thinning of kostyurenko of the sphenoid bone;
- the symptom of double circuits of walls.
Such bone changes in the Turkish saddle occur when large amounts of tumor of the pituitary gland.
The symptoms of gynecological diseases
Pathology of the neuroendocrine system, gynecological diseases manifested additional radiographic changes of the skull, thickening of the occipital and frontal bones. The changes relate to the Dura mater, which appear to activate the calcium. At this stage of the disease the patient has significantly changed the features of the face, thicken the eyebrows.
Other radiological signs of pathology Turkish saddle
Skull x-ray sometimes reveals «an empty Turkish saddle.» In the picture the changes occur below the diaphragm of the Turkish saddle, and enclosed in these signs:
- the bottom in the frontal plane symmetrically;
- the vertical magnification of the saddle a closed shape;
- double-bottom on the sagittal image.
Clinical signs of such a change of the saddle, however, is minimal. In patients not observed any endocrine disorders, but they are subject to surveillance. Malfunctions of the pituitary gland are more common in women.
Contra-indications for radiography of the skull
Skull x-ray is carried out at a low radial load, but the recurrent images she cumulates (accumulates). It is not recommended to take pictures in such cases:
- pregnant women;
- patients in a serious condition;
- oncological diseases of any localization;
- the leukemias.
If the contraindications diagnosis is carried out by machines without the use of x-rays. Safe but expensive method of diagnosis is magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which is based on the application of a magnetic field.
Computed tomography (CT) is a modern alternative to radiography
Modern technology allows x-rays to much more accurately diagnose the pathology of the organs of any size. This new method gives not just a snapshot, and three-dimensional image of the organ being examined. The results of the study are recorded on computer disk. In addition, the radiologist generates a written report to the attending doctor.
In conclusion, the themes note that the x-rays of the skull running to doctors of many specialties. Most often used to deliver x-ray of the Turkish saddle in cases of suspected pituitary tumors. X-ray reveals fractures of the skull, the indirect signs of tumors and cysts of the brain, foreign bodies and inflammation of the sinuses. This research method has some contraindications. To clarify the diagnosis using alternative x-ray – computed tomography (CT). It allows to obtain three-dimensional image and detects pathological lesions of small size.