X-rays coccyx: how do preparation, contraindications
According to statistics, due to pain in the coccyx to the doctor more often treat elderly, of which a large part are women. This problem occurs not only after injury.
Let us consider in detail the causes of pain below the waist. Find out when do I need to do an x-ray of the coccyx and sacrum. Learn how to make an x-ray of the coccyx, whether preparing before the procedure.
What is the coccyx and its functions
This part of the spine rudimentary (residual) body, which is in the process of human evolution in the absence of the need not have developed to the size of the tail. It left a memory in the form of a curved tip of the spine, consisting of 3-5 vertebrae. The coccyx connects to the sacrum by a joint having a cartilage disk. The connection is so movable that allows the tailbone to deviate during childbirth.
Front to the coccyx are attached to the muscles involved in ensuring the functions of the urinary organs and intestines. The important role of coccygeal nerve plexus, which through the spinal cord transmits signals to the brain from the organs of the pelvis. These include external and internal sex organs and also the lower sections of the intestine. While sitting the final part of the spine bears the brunt of the physical load.
Causes of pain in lower part of the spine
Pain in the sacrum sometimes occur in the elderly after a tailbone injury. It happens that during the fall people can not deviate, to protect themselves from injury.
In women during childbirth on the coccyx has a higher load, and restored it only after 5-6 months.
Therefore young women also often pain in the sacral region. Causes of pain in the coccygeal region:
- fractures with displacement of the bones;
- fractures without displacement;
- dislocation at the sacrococcygeal joint;
- tears the cartilage between the vertebrae;
- the separation of the coccyx from a joint.
The mechanism of pain after injury:
- In trauma, pain due to hemorrhage, anguish, inflammation and edema of the tissues.
- Nerve endings emerging from the coccyx, spend pain in the pelvic organs, which they Innervate – external and internal organs of the urogenital system. Therefore, the patient feels pain in the perineum after the injury.
- Dislocation of the coccyx anteriorly mechanically irritating the rectum. The pain occurs during defecation, urination and sexual life. Pain after injury can return many months after the injury.
- Sprains cause pain in the perineum while sitting.
- The pain reflected the character at the bottom of the lower back can occur due to diseases of the pelvic organs.
Closed fractures of the coccyx are rare. Cracks can long-term to prove himself. Over time, there is a condition accompanied by pain and stiffness in the Sacro-coccygeal joint. Pain when straightening after sitting or bending during sitting.
How do x-rays of the coccyx?
To obtain a quality image to the x-ray training is required. 1-2 days before the procedure it is not recommended to eat food that causes gas production: cabbage, beans, dairy products and sweets. Do a cleansing enema before the procedure and 2 hours before x-ray. The study should come on an empty stomach. In addition, prescribe taking of Fortrans. In urgent situations x-rays of the coccyx after doing a cleansing enema before the session.
X-ray take off metal objects they affect the image clarity.
The patient is placed on a horizontal table. During the procedure the radiologist uses several pilings:
- To obtain the radiographs in the direct projection of the patient is asked to take supine position with legs bent at the knee and hip joints (for a picture of the sacrum), and rectified (for a picture of the coccyx). The arms stretched along the body.
- For radiographs in the lateral projection the patient lies on his side with hands clasped behind your head and slightly bent at the knees legs.
- If necessary, research sacrococcygeal joints make oblique projection.
Standard radiography is performed in 2 planes. If necessary do x-ray of the tailbone in different positions.
He sees the radiologist in the picture?
On the radiograph in direct projection the doctor visualize the vertebrae and spinous processes. Radiograph reveals:
- fracture of the coccyx with the violation of the integrity of the bone;
- fracture, dislocation;
- dislocation of the sacrococcygeal joints, in which it noted the inconsistency of the articular surfaces;
- osteochondrosis revealed by the presence of osteophytes, reducing the height of the vertebrae in the lumbar;
- and tumor metastasis;
- deformity of the sacrococcygeal joint;
- anomalies of development.
Interpretation of images the radiologist is conducting immediately after the procedure. However, he describes the visible anatomical structure, said disruption to the structure, and then gives a breakdown and writes the conclusion.
In some cases, administered x-rays of the coccyx?
Images of the coccyx and sacrum do after a fall on the buttocks, if there is pain, worse during and after sitting. X-ray examination of the coccyx should be done in such cases:
- you cannot straighten the back or bend;
- aching or sharp pain in the lower back;
- problems while urinating;
- constant muscle tension in the lower back;
- backache in the spine;
- the impossibility of long sitting.
After injury may have pain in the pelvic area, since the nerves coming from the tailbone to be associated with them. At the same time the signals coming from these bodies, the nerve fibres transmit to the brain.
Contraindications for x-ray
The ray study of the coccyx is contraindicated:
- pregnant women;
- children up to 15 years.
Patients up to 15 years radiological examination is made only in case of injury or suspected tumor, if it is not possible to do research using MRI. Patients with obesity x-rays do not, because the pictures are fuzzy.
For conventional or modernized machines have digital x-rays. It allows to reduce the radiation dose and image quality. The advantage of this method is that the sharpness of the image can be corrected and the data transferred to the hard disk of the computer. This gives the possibility to transfer the local hospital network and the Internet. In addition, the get immediately after the procedure, which is important after injury.
Computed tomography (CT) also uses x-rays, but with the help of this method, get a series of images in different planes of the body. CT allows to visualize the pathology of the tissues in size from 1-2 mm. CT Images are guide the surgeon during the operation. The lack of CT – a large radiation exposure.
Beautiful, but expensive alternative to obtain image is a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). This method get a surround clear image in 3D mode, which is stored on the disks. The image is viewed in a computer program from any angle and in different planes. MRI reveals pathology of the bones, soft tissues, cartilage and tendons of the small size. Usually it is used for diagnosis.
In conclusion, recall that pain in the lower lumbar region require careful attention to itself. They can cause cracks, injuries and fractures of the coccyx. But in some cases they are caused by diseases of the pelvic organs. For diagnosis they take x-rays of the coccyx and sacrum. To the procedure need to prepare. For this diet, and doing enema.