X-rays of the ankle joint: indications, conduct, results
Radiography of the ankle ─ one of the most common methods of diagnosis of the damage and other pathological changes in this region. The method of x-ray based on the different ability of the tissues of the human body to pass x-rays.
The x-rays you can see the changes in the joint, and participate in the formation of bones.
The main x-ray symptoms of the pathology of bones and joints
- Location, shape and size of bones.
The mutual arrangement of the bones, their shape is disturbed as a result of congenital abnormalities or due to sprains and injuries.
The size of the bones tends to increase with increased load ─ thickening of the bone in this case is called hyperostosis. The hyperostosis may also occur when excessive proliferation of the periosteum, as a manifestation of reaction to the lack of blood, for example, in various intoxications, inflammation.
The bone on the radiograph is smaller when it is initially poor development, or atrophy in the absence of sufficient load or disease of the nerves.
- The condition of the bone surfaces.
Manifested by destruction of the outer layer of the bone, caused by inflammatory or oncological process.
There’s also the reverse situation ─ calcification and ossification of the periosteum, which, depending on the causes (inflammatory process), called periostitis or periostat.
Sometimes the periosteum may peel off from the bones visualized on x-ray in the form of a thin strip, a little removed from the bone.
- The actual structure of the bone.
Violated the integrity of the bone beams, such as fractures, with bones visible fracture line.
The most frequent kind of change the actual structure of bone tissue is osteoporosis. It is a reduction in the number of bone beams per unit volume of bone. The x-rays osteoporosis is manifested by high transparency of the bone tissue, the thinner her outer layer, an expanded bone-marrow channel.
Possible and the opposite situation ─ osteosclerosis, characterized by an increased number of bone beams.
In disorders of innervation of the bone part of the bone may undergo resorption (osteoliza), then turning to osteonecrosis. The substance of the bone in the area of necrosis does not tolerate normal loads, the bone beams are pressed together, the bone is deformed in the x-rays increases the intensity of her shadow.
Nekrotizirovannye areas of bone resorption have not succumbed to the not somestudies connective tissue can stay among the living tissues separate from the main substance of the bone in the form of curtailment.
- X-ray of the joint space.
Develop due to traumatic or degenerative changes of the articular cartilage. Their expression ─ narrowing of the normal gap of the joint. Uneven joint space narrowing in arthritis.
In case of arthrosis, in addition to the uneven x-ray narrowing of the joint space, osteophytes are observed ─ bony growths on the edges of the articular surfaces and subchondral osteosclerosis (appears already in the late stages of the disease) ─ seal of the bone under the articular cartilage.
Ultimately, the pathology in the region of the joint space lead to ankylosis ─ the fusion of the articular surfaces. It can be fibrous ─ when in the joint cavity grows connective tissue, and bone if you change the connective tissue came the bone, making the joint completely immobile.
Diagnosed by x-ray pathology
Based on the aforementioned General principles of lesions of bones and joints, defined on x-rays, you can define the following diseases:
- Congenital and acquired deformities (clubfoot, flat feet).
- Fractures and cracks.
Indications for use of x-rays of the ankle joint
- Pain in the ankle.
- Movement disorders, reduced range of motion.
- Swelling in the joint.
- Deformation of the ankle joint.
Contraindications and preparation of the study
Contraindications for x-ray studies of the joints there. Not recommended screening of pregnant women and children up to 15 years, but according to the testimony is, even from them.
No special preparation of patient is required, the test is performed quickly and painlessly. X-rays of the ankle joint can be carried out in three planes: back straight, back-rotation of the foot medially and lateral. The patient is placed on a special table and close region, not subjected to survey, special means of protection, shielding x-ray radiation.
Radiation exposure from x-ray examination of the joints is about 0.01 mSv.
X-ray examination of the ankle joint can be done in the public clinic, getting to the doctor (e.g., surgeon).
- Computed tomography is used to more careful assessment of the bones of the patient. Not recommended for pregnant women and children.
- Magnetic resonance imaging helps to study the soft tissue.
- Ultrasound examination is indicated for examination of the soft tissue and the joint cavity, determining the presence of fluid in it, is used relatively infrequently.