X-rays of the heart: conducting, rentgenografija, description
X-rays were discovered 120 years ago by the German physicist Wilhelm Roentgen. In our time the x-ray method of study remains informative and popular way of establishing and confirming the diagnosis by doctors of various specialties.
We will now consider the application of the rays in cardiology. Find out what is rentgenografija heart. Find out what diseases reveals x-ray of the heart. Are there any contraindications for this method.
Rentgenografija heart consists of his shadow, pulmonary artery, aorta and superior Vena cava. Two-thirds of these bodies are to the left of the midline of the chest, and only 1/3 of the stands to the right of the middle of the chest.
In rentgenkabinetom the thorax comprises the lungs, trachea and large bronchi.
Heart in the chest is tip down, left and anteriorly. Its base is directed upwards, to the right and posteriorly. Distinguish 3 types of position of the heart shadow depending on the angle of deflection and constitutional type:
- vertical (angle > 45°);
- oblique (45°);
- horizontal (angle < 45°).
The horizontal position is more common in women. From tall people heart is upright.
How to do screening?
Before the study is removed from the neck metal jewelry, which is reflected in the quality of the pictures. X-rays are produced in four projections: front, left side, right and left oblique at an angle of 45°. The advantage of oblique images – they show the wall and aortic arch. In the right oblique projection the doctor to visualize the heart. On direct radiographs is visible the dome of the diaphragm and the position of the heart. The comparison of the obtained four images, the radiologist makes a conclusion of cardiac pathology.
Which shows an x-ray study was normal
A cardiac nuclear medicine exam is carried out by fluoroscopy and radiography. Fluoroscopy determines the contractility of the heart and the pulsation of the aorta and pulmonary artery. With its help you can visually determine the pathological education and their removability. The doctor also sees the respiratory motion of the lungs in real time.
Radiography of the heart defines the following parameters:
- the size of the heart and large vessels;
- the position and shape of the body;
- the size of the chambers of the heart;
- the condition of both lungs;
- the position of the diaphragm;
- parameters of the chest.
Description of x-ray depends on the projection, which was used for the. X-rays do in the four standard projections of the trunk: anterior, lateral and two oblique.
In the right oblique position the patient is turned to the screen at 45°. X-ray study of the heart in this position reveals:
- arterial cone;
- retrosternal and retrocardiac space;
- the boundaries of the left and right ventricle;
- the contours of both Atria.
Radiographs in the frontal projection reveals the cavity and the position of major blood vessels:
- the form of the ascending aorta;
- the arc of the left ventricle;
- the border of the right and left atrium;
- both cardiodepressant angle (right and left);
- the arc of the pulmonary artery.
During the photograph in the left oblique position of a man turned to the screen at 50-60°. The radiograph in this position reveals:
- the borders of both ventricles;
- the boundaries of both Atria;
- the trachea in the place of divergence.
- pozitivnoe space;
- the left bronchus.
The x-ray in lateral projection shows:
- the border of the left atrium;
- the shadow of the ascending aorta;
- the border of both ventricles.
In the picture in the lateral projection, the person turned to the screen to the left side by 90°.
That can detect x-rays?
The reveals the shape and size of the heart, as well as the condition of the great vessels. The size of the organ is an important indicator in the diagnosis of diseases. Determination of the size produced by its width or length, and calculate the cardiothoracic index. On the level of the 4th rib to measure heart size and width of the chest. Chest 2 times wider than the heart, which means that the cardiothoracic index of 50%.
Excess of this rate indicates an increase in cardiac muscle.
The excess of the value of the cardiac departments evidence of myocardial hypertrophy that occurs with hypertension and coronary heart disease. Identification of dilatatie (extension) cameras tells about heart failure or cardiomyopathy. X-ray allows you to identify the configuration of the cavities of the heart. The increase in the contours of its departments evidence of heart defects. Hypertrophy and enlargement of the right heart evidence of pulmonary heart, which develops in diseases of the lungs.
In the picture of the heart can determine the change of the main vessels. The doctor can visualize the aorta, the presence of plaques, seals, the deposition of calcium salts. On the radiograph it is possible to identify pericarditis, in which the cavity of the pericardium fluid accumulates. The pericardium is stretched in the form of a sphere with the rapid accumulation of fluid. In the case of slow accumulation of fluid on the looks in the form of a bag. Calcium deposits on radiograph reveals constrictive pericarditis.
On the heart indicate pathology changes in the lungs. In heart failure there is an increased vascular pattern in roots of the lungs.
Radiation study is contraindicated in pregnant women. The don’t do cancer without the availability of strict readings. Repeated x-ray examination is not carried out, if the patient has suffered a large radiation exposure. During the year, the total dose should not exceed 5 mSv (millisievert). In every conclusion, the radiologist indicates the radiation dose.
In conclusion, we note that the x-ray method is still used in cardiology. This method is informative and accessible. It allows real-time to observe the pulsation of the great vessels and to quickly identify cardiac pathology. In cardiology used alternative methods of investigation – ultrasound, CT (computed tomography) and MRI (magnetic resonance imaging).