X-rays of the hip joint training, as do the results
X-rays of the hip joint helps the physician quickly to understand what is bothering the patient, make a differential diagnosis, to define tactics of further examination and treatment.
Radiograph this area shows directly the hip joint, and the bones of its components: proximal femur and the pelvic bone consisting of ischium, pubis and Ilium.
As seen in the picture of the hip joint?
What draws the attention of the doctor when interpreting the results of radiography of the hip joint?
- The integrity of the bones involved in the formation of the joint density.
- Sufficient size and correct shape of the articular surface of the femoral head. The femoral head can be both excess and too little. In another case, there is flattening of the acetabulum. Both not uncommon with dysplasia (congenital underdevelopment) of the hip joint.
- The size of the joint space (the acetabulum of the pelvic bone, cartilaginous joint formed by three bones: the ischium, the pubic and iliac). If the joint space is reduced, this means that thinning of the articular cartilage, it can no longer perform the function of the shock absorber ─ right to distribute load when walking and running.
- The conformity of the articular surfaces to each other. The discrepancy observed in hip dysplasia, it is often a congenital condition. The mismatch of the femoral head and acetabulum (disagreement) creates the conditions for the formation of the first previlige thigh, when the articular head, livehouses spontaneously, as yourself reduce in its place. If nothing is done, the condition is exacerbated ─ develops subluxation and then dislocation of the hip.
Also discongruence may appear in the result of the gradual destruction of the joint with arthrosis. The disease leads to reduced mobility and even lack of movement ─ the formation of ankylosis.
When should I think about x-ray-diagnosis?
- For injuries or polytrauma (often performed along with a study of the bones of the pelvis).
- In hip dysplasia, including to confirm the diagnosis of congenital subluxation/dislocation of the hip.
- If concerned about pain and swelling in the joint.
- If you reduce the range of motion and other mobility impairments.
- Crunching, clicking with movements, the feeling of displacement the articular head.
- In the presence of malignant tumors.
The diagnosed pathology
Further that shows the x-ray of the hip joint:
- Hip fractures of different localization: head, neck, proximal body of the bone.
- Dislocations, subluxations in the joints.
- Changes of the articular surfaces of the hip joint pathology: arthritis, arthrosis.
- Hip dysplasia, congenital hypoplasia.
- Perthes disease ─ osteochondropathy of the femoral head, in which there is aseptic necrosis of her land.
- Some infectious diseases with a possible location of lesions in the bones (tuberculosis).
- Osteoporosis (decrease bone density) components of the joint bones.
- Neoplasms. Can be detected as the primary tumor and metastases of other localizations. Dice most often metastasize malignant tumors of the thyroid, breast, prostate glands, and lungs and kidneys.
Preparation for the examination
X-rays of the hip joints are often held together with radiography of the pelvis, preparing them similar.
Two days before the studies should begin to stick to the diet, eliminating foods that lead to excessive flatulence: cabbage, black bread, legumes. If flatulence is present, the patient is administered chelators.
The research is based on an empty stomach, between it and the last meal must be at least 12 hours. The night before doing a cleansing enema, if necessary it can be repeated before the procedure.
From the responsibility of the patient during the preparation of the study directly depends on the result ─ the better will be the picture, the easier it will be to read x-rays the doctor.
How and where is?
Before the study, not interested in the doctor areas of the body covered with special shielding x-rays, the apron.
Do x-rays in two projections: frontal and lateral.
- To create an image in direct projection the patient lies on back with legs extended, turned a little inwards (internal rotation is not carried out, if there is any suspicion of fracture or dislocation in the hip joint).
- Lateral projection obtained when the patient lies on his back, bending in the hip joint of one limb. If the movement in the examined joint is severely painful, can bend the healthy leg.
If necessary, the doctor may prescribe diagnosis under the necessary corner.
X-rays can be done at the state clinic in the community, taking direction from physician, trauma surgeon, orthopedist, or other specialist, as well as in any private medical center with x-ray machine. Urgently do an x-ray in the emergency room, in terms of admissions.
X-rays of the hip joint, as well as any x-ray diagnosis is contraindicated in children under 15 years and pregnant women. However it does even in these groups of patients when the doctor insists, for example, if you run a diagnosis it is impossible by any other available method.
Radiograph with the image of the hip joint is made for children to confirm the diagnosis of congenital subluxation/dislocation of the hip.
Children up to 3 months. recommended holding ultrasound in the absence of ossification and uninformative shots.
Radiation dose in this study is about 1.5 mSv.
The advantages of x-ray diagnosis and its alternatives
Advantages of x-rays remain:
- Ease of implementation.
Alternatively, x-ray possible:
- Ultrasound study. Actively used in young children, and also for the diagnosis of abnormalities in soft tissues that do not require the high resolution of the method.
- Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides good image quality and high accuracy of detection, especially lesions nekotryh structures, including the state of the ligaments, the presence of effusion in the joint cavity.
- Computed tomography (CT) creates a three-dimensional model of the study area, which greatly facilitates diagnosis. The image obtained by CT, of high quality. The main disadvantage is that because of the many snapshots of the radial load on the body more than conventional x-rays. However, in some cases without CT will not do.
- Hip arthroscopy is carried out with the aim of diagnosis and treatment. Allows you to inspect the cavity of a joint using arthroscope and to immediately carry out the necessary manipulations. As any invasive procedure can have many complications.
Despite the emergence of new, more modern and high-tech methods of research radiography plays a key role in most of the cases that require rapid and low-cost diagnostics, differential diagnostics of diseases of this localization.