X-rays of the nose: indications, conduct, results
In the diagnosis of diseases of the nose main examination – radiological. Without this method, not do trauma surgeons, ENT physicians and oral surgeons.
Let’s consider, in what cases do an x-ray of the nose. Find out what you can see on the radiograph are normal. What changes occur in the bones of the nose in diseases. How often do x-rays of the nose.
What is seen on the radiograph of the nose normal?
On radiographs, normal doctor radiologist sees the bones of the nose and sinuses:
- primary paranasal sinus and cells of the temporal bones;
- ethmoidal sinuses are visible on simple radiographs only at special positions of the head.
The doctor writes the conclusion, radiographs, based on such criteria rules:
- the walls and edges of the nasal bones thin and clear;
- airy in the region sinus of the same;
- on the ethmoid bone are clearly visible in the cell.
A written medical report is handed to the patient. The should be retained, it may be useful to the physician for comparison. Then there will be no need to do x-rays.
In some cases, shows the x-ray?
The reason for the radiological examination of the nose is a suspicion of an acute illness or injury. X-rays do in such cases:
- foreign bodies and trauma of the nose;
- sinusitis acute and chronic;
- suspected cancer of the sinuses;
- a deviated septum;
- suspected osteomyelitis;
- identifying polyps and cysts;
- before surgery on the bones of the nose and sinuses.
Special preparation before x-ray is not required, but before the procedure, remove the head and neck metallic objects that interfere with image clarity of the image. The patient is seated so that it rested against his nose and chin in the machine.
Contra-indications for radiography
Pregnancy is an absolute contraindication to x-rays. Immunocompromised patients immunocompromised radiography is also sometimes contraindicated. Study rays do not make children up to 15 years. The exception is a foreign body in the nose or suspected pneumonia.
How often do x-rays?
How often can I do an x-ray depends on the device and the body, which accounts for radiation. By order of the MOH of Russia preventive fluorography 1 time per year. Patients suffering from bronchial asthma, HIV and diabetes, make fluorography 2 times per year. Radiation exposure during radiography of the paranasal sinuses is low, so if necessary, 2 times a year can do.
The largest radiation dose CT scan gives in which to take images in different planes.
Currently on the regulations introduced the procedure of registration of exposure doses. Exposure data recorded on the first page of the patient card in «Leaf radiation exposure». Annual dose is 5 mSv (millisievert). In each conclusion of the picture the doctor radiologist records the radiation dose in millisieverts. In Western countries, the radiation dose for people not reglamentary. X-ray examination if necessary make desired number of times. Patients that often require a image of the nasal bones, you can do an MRI.
Radiographic signs of diseases of the nose and paranasal sinuses
X-rays of the nose do if you suspect sinusitis – inflammation of paranasal sinuses. In the picture you can see such changes in various forms of sinusitis:
- In catarrhal sinusitis at the edges of the walls of the sinus near the bone, you can see the thickening. Chronic sinusitis without the aggravation characterized by a clear boundary between the edge of the bone and mucosa. If crossing the border is smooth, it indicates a chronic process in the acute stage. You can see more contour, which means the consequences of sinusitis.
- For cysts are characterized by rounded cavity with the correct edges.
- Radiography can confirm the presence of a foreign body in the nose.
- Hyperplastic sinusitis is characterized by thickened mucosa.
- In exudative sinusitis x-ray shows the darkening of the sinus with a horizontal fluid level.
- For allergic and vasomotor sinusitis characterized by thickening of the mucous membrane nacoste. But in allergic process in a short time you can see different picture of the nasal bones.
- In the picture you can see the tumor.
- The curvature of the bone of the nasal septum, developed due to incorrectly fused fracture or developmental abnormalities.
With the help of x-rays not only reveal the sinusitis, but also evaluate the quality of treatment.
X-ray of nasal bones in trauma
Traditionally, injuries of the nose making x-rays. It allows you to see the condition of the nasal passages, bones and cartilage. The most acceptable in trauma digital radiography, which allows you to see the image on the computer screen immediately after the image. X-rays should be done after hitting a flat surface or injury of the nose with a hard object. The fractures reveals the following changes:
- detects foreign bodies;
- detects fragments in the soft tissues;
- the defines the line of fracture;
- fractures you can see the offset of the nasal bones.
X-ray examination of the nose doing in the early stages after injury, allowing the doctor to determine the correct tactics of treatment. In the process of treatment with the help picture control the process of accretion of bone.
Alternative to traditional x-rays
Modern methods of investigation using the latest technology, it is possible to much more accurately diagnose the disease. Apply the following techniques:
- An alternative use of x-rays is the computerized tomography (CT). With its help receive not just images, and three-dimensional image, which is transferred to CDs, Flash, and can be transmitted over the Internet or local network. The CT image more clearly, it is very important for the operating surgeon.
- Method of study in radiology is magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). This method uses the energy of the magnetic field, which unlike x-rays will not have a negative influence and do not have cumulative properties. With MRI receive a volumetric 3D image that can be viewed from different angles in any plane in the computer program. The results of the study clear and reflect the pathological changes of the small size. Thanks to MRI, it became possible early diagnosis of diseases.
- Digital radiography uses the same or a foreign x-ray machines, but the image in this way is scanned on the plate, and from there transmitted to a computer. The digital technique has advantages over traditional radiography:
- you can immediately see the image on the display;
- the image is saved on the media – and mobile hard drives.
- fast image processing;
- image transmission by local network of medical institutions and the Internet.
Advantages of x-ray usual devices in their availability and cheapness. But any kind of x-ray examination, including digital, can not be used often due to the cumulative effect. So if you need to resort to alternative methods. Currently, the most efficient and safe way study in radiology is the MRI. Although this method is not cheap, but it justifies itself with the price of health.
In conclusion, x-ray it is this part of the skull is often prescribed after an injury or if you suspect sinusitis. The survey also needs to control the fusion of the bones or of the results of treatment. If contraindications or the need for frequent image acquisition you can use an alternative diagnostic methods. Safe and accurate method of obtaining a snapshot is MRI.