What is metabolism, levels and types of metabolic processes in simple language

About metabolism speak and write a lot and with taste. Neither the website dedicated to fitness, article about metabolism. That’s just the vast majority of articles overloaded with scientific terms, and written in a language that the sensing information to the common man very difficult. So today we will talk about what is metabolism, but only in simple language.

What is metabolism?

Synonymous with metabolism is the concept of metabolism. It is the processes occurring in the body of every living creature on our planet. Man is no exception. They provide the body.

A large part of the substances necessary for metabolic processes, we obtain from eating, drinking and breathing. This:

  • Nutrients.
  • Oxygen.
  • Water.
  • Minerals.
  • Vitamins.

All these elements are received in the base, which is not absorbed by the body. Therefore, the body launches a series of processes that breaks down the basic elements into smaller particles that are easily digested. New components are the most important needs of the body: the regeneration of tissues, ensuring normal work of organs and so on.

There is a misconception that metabolism manifests itself only in the case when a person gets physical activity. In fact, the metabolic processes in our bodies don’t stop even for a second, because for normal operation always need new elements.

Metabolism consists of two main processes:

  1. Catabolism. It is the destruction of substances delivered to the body externally. This process allows you to make complex components simple. For example, people ate food rich in protein, which is very important for the body as used to build new cells, but in complex form it body. So starts the process of catabolism, separating the protein into amino acids, which the body successfully let for own needs. Catabolism is accompanied by release of energy, measured in calories.
  2. Anabolism. This process is the reverse catabolism. Its essence lies in the synthesis of complex substances from simple components. The easiest and most obvious example of anabolism – growth of hair. Also, this process starts when the healing of wounds, muscle growth, upgrade, blood, etc. Anabolism energy-consuming. Therefore, this process uses the energy released by catabolism. If there is an excess of energy, the body immediately stores it in adipose tissue.

Protein metabolism

Without protein our body is unable to function normally. If he needs different types of proteins: plant and animal. All volumes of protein received by a person from the outside, is first broken down into amino acids and then synthesized into new compounds. The balance is maintained at 1:1. That is, get all the protein goes to work.

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Carbohydrate metabolism

Carbohydrates give our bodies the most energy. It is customary to divide them into simple and complex.

The first group includes cereals, grains, rye bread, vegetables and fruit. Of these products, the person gets useful carbohydrates, which are digested slowly, and therefore provide the necessary pumping energy for a long time.

To the second should include sugar, pastries, refined flour, sodas. They provide a quick carbohydrates, and even in excess. As we mentioned before, the excess energy the body immediately stores as fat. The body with fast carbohydrates are useful only in one case, with a very heavy physical exertion. Therefore, weightlifters allow myself during the training process to drinking the carbohydrate shakes.

Fat metabolism

Upon receipt of animal and vegetable fat in the body, the body will first decompose them into glycerin, and then use the fatty acids again turns into fat that accumulates in adipose tissue. Fat is very important for the body because it is a store of energy that the body tends to stock up at every opportunity. However, when excess fat, the fat begins to cause harm to human health. In particular, the internal visceral fat reserves when excess pressure on the internal organs, interfering with their normal operation. By the way, visceral deposits are found even in lean people, which is a symptom of disorders of fat metabolism.

Water and salt metabolism

Water is the most important component of the human body. It in the human body more than 70% of the body weight. Water is, in any human tissue. It is necessary for the normal course of biochemical processes in the body.

Most people today experience a constant lack of water, but do not even know it. Headaches, poor performance, irritability, they blamed on stress, although in reality it is the manifestation of water scarcity. The rate of water consumption for the average person is 3 liters. This includes the moisture contained in the food.

The proportion of mineral salts in the human body also significant to 4.5% of the total weight. Salts are catalysts of various metabolic processes, are used for the construction of body tissues, serve as conductors of impulses between cells. Without them it is impossible to develop a variety of important hormones.

Lack of salt can cause serious health problems.


Unlike other items coming from outside the body, vitamins do not undergo splitting. This is the finished material that the body uses to build cells. Therefore, the deficiency manifests itself very badly, because without them, some functions of the body simply stop working.

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The daily rate of vitamins is relatively small and easily covered by regular meals. However, adequate but monotonous diet can cause beriberi. So, people need to diversify their diet.

What is metabolism?

In the preparation of diets and programs of exercise professionals often use the term basic metabolism. It is also often called the main. It is a measure of the energy required by the body for normal functioning during the day at complete rest. That is, basic metabolic rate shows how much energy people will spend a day just lying in bed.

Very often people in your quest to lose weight cut diet so that the caloric value falls below the level of basic metabolism. Accordingly, the principal organs cease to receive the necessary energy for normal operation. This is detrimental to health. Therefore, without preliminary calculations, taking into account: weight, basic metabolism, level of activity, no diet be impossible.

Metabolism can be sustained and accelerated. In the first case, the body spends less energy than it receives. Because it takes a set of adipose tissue. In the second case, the body spends more calories than it receives. People with fast metabolism can eat more food and not gain weight. However, they feel cheerful and happy.

The rate of metabolism depends on several factors:

  • A person’s gender. In men, the body more reactive, and therefore the cost of energy is on average 5% higher than that of women. This is explained by the large volumes of muscle tissue that requires more energy. In women, the volume of muscle is less, so energy costs are lower.
  • The age of the person. Since thirty years the metabolism in the body slows down by about 10% per decade. Therefore, the older a person is, the faster he’s gaining weight. To combat this weight gain doctors offer elderly gradually reduce caloric intake and increase physical activity.
  • The volume ratio of fat and muscle. Muscle is the main consumer of energy in the human body. They require energy supply even at rest. To maintain fat reserves of energy spent is much less. For this reason, athletes consume 15% more calories at rest than fat people.
  • Diet. Excess caloric intake, disturbing the peace, the abundance of fatty foods all contribute to the slowing of metabolic processes.
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A metabolic process

Causes problems with the metabolism can be various diseases, violate the normal operation of the main endocrine glands of the body, as well as genetic factors. If the first medicine is quite successful fights, on the second until the impact can not.

Please note that the violation of metabolic processes in humans most often occurs not because of disease and genetic disorders, and inadequate eating behavior. That is, people simply pass do not adhere to a diet, abusing fat food satisfied the hunger of a diet, sitting on a low-calorie diet. Yes, all the Express diet end up breaking the metabolism.

Very great harm to the exchange processes are harmful habits: Smoking and alcohol abuse. The situation is aggravated if the holder of the bad habits besides lead a sedentary lifestyle.

Metabolism and weight loss

These two concepts are inseparable. Our weight is in direct proportion to the speed of metabolism. The higher the speed, the more energy the body spends at rest.

For each person the level of basic metabolism of your. A thousand calories for a normal life, and another two thousand will not be enough. While people with low basic metabolism will be forced to severely restrict the diet in terms of caloric content. As the owner of a fast metabolism can not engage in limiting supply. He still will not recover.

It is important to understand that the extreme restriction of the diet is the wrong way to a slim figure. Correct to speed up metabolism.

Accelerated metabolism

For the normalization and acceleration of metabolic processes to get rid of the factors that slow them: physical inactivity, poor nutrition, inadequate fluid intake, lack of sleep, stress. Once you achieve this, your metabolism will begin to accelerate, causing the normalization of weight and making you healthier.