A bad cold and stuffy nose: how to treat
How to treat severe nasal congestion in an adult?
The allocation aconselho secretion and swelling occur on the background of inflammation of the inner lining of the nose. The pathological process occurs under the influence of external and internal aggressive factors (pathogenic strains, antigens), anatomical disorders, a weakened immune system.
Therapy respiratory tract begins with the identification of the causes that provoked the symptoms. How to treat and how severe cold and congestion within the skill of the audiologist or physician. Medical scheme is tailored to the severity of the pathology, localization of stimuli, individual characteristics of the organism.
The nature of cold
The inner surface of the nasopharynx is lined with ciliated epithelium, which is responsible for the functions of upper body. The anatomical structure of the outer layer of the paranasal sinuses represented by unicellular glands, ciliated cells with cilia.
The well-coordinated work of the mucociliary apparatus, goblet cells produce normal nasal secretion for moistening the soft tissues and fibers prevent the penetration and output of dust and pathogens.
The main degenerative disease of the nose is rhinitis. Is an inflammatory process of the shell, which in the development passes through three stages: reflex, catarrhal, and chronic.
In violation of the integrity of the mucosa, increases the production aconselho secret, as a response of the organism to the action of stimuli.
The fundamental mechanisms of development of rhinitis – diseases of viral, bacterial, allergic or mechanical etiologies. State of immunosuppression, hypothermia, psycho-emotional disorders create favorable conditions for foreign agents.
If the first phase of the pathology signs of weakly expressed or completely absent, the next two occur in the following disorders:
- expansion of capillaries, edema of the nasal cavity;
- violation of the drainage function;
- a nasal;
- increased body temperature;
- deterioration of sense of smell and taste.
Clear discharge liquid consistency, without foreign smell indicate infection of the body by viruses. When the secret becomes yellow or green color with impurities of purulent clots, it indicates a bacterial inflammation.
Interesting! The optimum temperature for the full production of the ciliated epithelium varies from 28 to 32°C.
The consequences of the interaction of the organism with antigens manifest an allergic reaction. To powerful stimuli include plant spores, dust, pet dander, household chemicals, alkalis and acids.
That will help when severe congestion
Weakened immunity or ineffective treatment of the common cold from acute becomes chronic. Congestion and swelling of the nose in an adult or child requires conservative methods.
Treatment of rhinitis respiratory, viral and infectious diseases involves the use of pharmaceutical products:
- vasoconstrictor drops. Alpha-agonists in the local restore patency of the nasal passages, contribute to vasoconstriction, which creates favorable conditions for breeding aconselho secret. A systemic effect of the drug is missing, to determine the concentration of constituents in serum is impossible due to weak absorption.
The effectiveness of the drug is reduced after 5-7 days of systematic use. Amid the indiscriminate use developing drug-induced rhinitis. Therefore, a therapeutic regimen nasal drops are included with the course from 3 to 5 days, with the frequency of treatments to 3 times per day.
Wide application in otolaryngology has received «Nazivin», «Xylometazoline», «Oxymetazoline», «Vibrocil», «Nasik», «Sanorin» Pediatrics»Nasales», «Long Baby», «the Nose»;
- moisturizing preparations. The main component of marine or mineral water containing natural minerals, calcium, potassium, magnesium, iron. The main purpose of medicines is to stimulate the discharge of secretions from the maxillary and nasal sinuses, moistening the mucosa, normalization of the production of glandular epithelial cells. Anti-inflammatory effect, reduce the intensity of swelling.
Due to the natural composition, the drops can be used for a long period of time from a week to two months, 4 to 6 times a day. Lavage of the nasal passages before therapeutic measures can improve the absorption and effectiveness of medication.
Representatives: «Akvamaris», «Marimer», «Aqualor»;
Important! At high temperature, intoxication medical scheme is complemented by antipyretic, anti-inflammatory drugs («Ibuprofen», «Paracetamol»).
- antibacterial drops. The main composition represented by the combination of plant material and microbial components of the group of penicillins, cephalosporins, macrolides, fluoroquinolones. Bacteriostatic effect is in inhibition of the synthesis of pathogenic strains, the promotion of recovery of the inner lining of the nose. Has anti-inflammatory and vasoconstrictor activity.
Indications for the purpose is the defeat of the upper respiratory tract gram-positive, gram-negative bacteria. One of the contraindications is age of the patient, taking with non-selective MAO inhibitors, sympathomimetics.
The dosage and course of treatment determined by the physician, the average duration of treatment is 5 days. Therapeutic efficacy proved «Baktroban», «Izofra», «Polideksa», «Bioparox», «resorption», «Sumamed»;
- hormonal sprays. Have local anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic effect, temporarily normalize breathing through the nose, reduce production of mucolytic secret. The active ingredients are not absorbed into the plasma, do not have systemic effects, not addictive.
The therapeutic effect observed after 6-8 hours after nasal irrigation channels is maintained until 18 hours. The activity of enzymes that destroy the structure of the epithelium of the nasal cavity, inhibit such drugs as «almost four years», «Nasonex», lower blood pressure mother»;
- mucolytics. The peculiarity of the action of drugs is to dilute thick secretions, facilitating its excretion. Antioxidant are characterized by weakly pronounced anti-inflammatory effect. Therapeutic effect manifests «Sinupret», «ACC», «wicks Asset», «Fluimucil», «Libertinage». Prohibited combination expectorant medicines with antitussive medications.
For the treatment of allergic rhinitis, which is accompanied by swelling and nasal congestion need the help of an allergist. With the help of bacterial culture at the concentration of eosinophils doctor will determine the source of irritation, will select the antihistamines.
Nuance! When you confirm the allergic form of rhinitis in the first place, you should limit contact with the antigen.
Pharmaceutical products block histamine H1-receptors, facilitate for allergies, prevent the risk of edema of the soft tissues. Not have a sedative action, are excreted by the kidneys, with stool.
Be wary appoint patients with hypersensitivity to the individual components. Recommended medication: «Zyrtec», «Citrine», «Zodak», «Parlazin».
Severe nasal congestion adult and child are the prerequisites for carrying out physiotherapy: ultraviolet irradiation, electrophoresis, UHF. The principle of the methods is reduced to the influence of ultrasonic frequencies or laser on local places.
The goal of therapy is to hasten the regeneration of the mucosa, to normalize the flow of blood, to arrest the inflammatory process. The duration of treatment varies from 5 to 12 treatments that are assigned in the morning.
Traditional methods of treatment of rhinitis and nasal congestion
Advantage of alternative medicine is natural ingredients, availability, and low cost. Manipulation in the home complements the medical scheme.
One of the fastest way to get rid of snot – inhalation of saline, natural mineral water («Borzhomi», «Essentuki»), essential oils. Treatments aimed at hydration of the nasal mucosa, the elimination of myconazole secret.
It is possible to conduct inhalation over a bowl of steaming healing or to use a special device is a nebulizer. The frequency of manipulation ranges from 2 to 3 per day.
In the case where a preceding factor for the development of a cold is hypothermia, effective methods of warming up of the nose. You can use a boiled egg, warm bags of salt or sand. A favourable impact on the condition of the paranasal sinuses has a special blue lamp.
Absolutely contraindicated in these procedures if the bacterial form of rhinitis, sinusitis, sinusitis.
For reference! The bath helps to eliminate toxins, increase blood circulation, active sweating, which speeds up the healing process, reduces the production of mucous secret.
Effective non-traditional methods in combating the common cold are the following recommendations:
- rinse nasal passages with saline. To 1 liter of water add a tablespoon of salt. To irrigate the sinuses 2-3 times a day until complete recovery;
- drink plenty of fluids, infusions of chamomile, Linden, rosehip, mint, adding a teaspoon of honey;
- eating a paste of onions and garlic;
- to bury the nose of beet or carrot juice. Procedure with caution to young children because the components can cause a burning sensation, allergic reactions. To reduce the concentration of the juice can be diluted with water in equal proportions;
- lubricate turbinate eucalyptus or fir oil.
Severe cold and nasal congestion indicate pathological changes in the body. With timely diagnosis and effective treatment to get rid of rhinitis on 1-2 stages of its manifestation.
For the positive dynamics of recovery, doctors recommend a comprehensive treatment of physical therapy and the ingestion of drugs. To strengthen the immune system, restore the functions of the nose are used methods of alternative medicine.