A deviated septum: treatment, consequences, and causes

A deviated septum in your nose — causes and consequences

The nasal septum is a plate having its place of location of the nasal cavity, which she in turn divides in half. The front portion of this olfactory organ is formed from cartilage, and the back of the bone. Plate takes part in the organization of the normal breathing through the nose. That is why the deviated septum in the nose interferes with breathing, preventing the passage of air masses through the nasal passages.

In otorhinolaryngological practice, many cases of deformity of the nasal bones and cartilaginous parts. Pathological processes that cause the curvature of the nasal plate, lead to different sorts of violations. The deformed portions of the nose impede the intake of adequate amounts of oxygen, resulting in more serious complications. Let us consider the causes, symptoms and treatment of deviated nasal septum, as well as what kind of threat to the body is fraught with illness.

The causes of curvature of the septum in the nose

Experts identify several reasons for the occurrence of deformation processes in the nasal cavity:

  • physiological characterized by impaired growth of the cranial bones and congenital anomalies;
  • compensatory due to the presence of pathologies in the nasal cavity;
  • traumatic injuries, fractures and other injuries in the nose, provoking the displacement of its bones.

For physiological reasons include:

  1. Violation of uniformity of development of bones of cerebral and facial skull. Most doctors are inclined to believe that this phenomenon is the most common cause of deviated nasal septum. Active development of the cerebral part leads to the fact that the volume of the nasal cavity becomes smaller. As a result, the partition does not fit in the frame and is curved.
  2. Violation of uniformity of development of bone and cartilage. Due to active growth of the bone parts of the nasal septum, deformed cartilage areas.
  3. Pererastaet rudiment of the organ of Jacobson, which are located in the olfactory region of the nasal cavity, interferes with the normal development of the septum and causes a curvature.

Among compensatory reasons are the following:

  1. Hypertrophy of the turbinate. The development of hypertrophic processes in one of the halves of the olfactory organ, exerts pressure on the plate and contributes to its displacement.
  2. Polyposis of the nose. The growth of polyps leads to the violation of nasal breathing. Partition aims to compensate for this condition and deformed.
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One of the precipitating factors that result in curvature of the nose, are traumatic injuries, often resulting from bumps in the facial region. That is why this disease affects more men, much less women.

Deformation processes in young children occur rarely. According to statistics, their development is in the age range from 13 to 20 years.

The main symptoms of the disease

The most common sign indicating that the shape of the septum is distorted, is the breathing through the nose on one side of the olfactory organ or both. This phenomenon is caused by the narrowing of the passages of the nose, or the incorrect flow of air masses and the formation sites of low pressure.

Receptors of the nasal mucosa, which are transmitted to the Central nervous system, distorted and wrong provoke a vasomotor response, leading to poor circulation in the nasal mucosa and edema of the turbinates. The result is a fore gleam is narrowed, and difficult breathing.

Among the main features of the curvature of the nose secrete:

  • difficulties when breathing through the nose;
  • nosebleeds;
  • snoring;
  • dryness of the nose;
  • allergic reactions, acquiring a protracted nature;
  • headaches and pain in the nose area;
  • fatigue.

Classification

Deformation of the bone plate and cartilage can be completely different:

  • bending;
  • thorn;
  • ledge;
  • the comb nose.

The type strain of ENT specialists klassificeret curvature of the nasal septum as:

  • C-shaped;
  • S-shaped;
  • anterior-posterior S-shaped curvature;
  • the curvature of the bone crest of the maxilla and the nasal plate.

It is not excluded the occurrence of combined abnormalities. The ridges and curves are bilateral. Due to the deformation of the patient may be a narrowing of the nasal departments in different places.

Most often when performing rhinoscopy detected by the bending in the form of the letter S, covering the whole of the cartilage, as seen in the photo below. In more rare cases, can be used perpendicular plate and the vomer. Rear partition divisions bent is extremely rare. The same can be said about the back of the opener. The curves of the plate to reach the nose arch also infrequently.

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For strain injuries are characterized by changes in the form of curves with sharp corners. Traumatic curvature of the nasal septum often is offset from the front end of the quadrangular cartilage. In otolaryngology this condition is a dislocation. There are times when the jump-out of the lower end of the cartilage with the vomer, the upper part extends in the nasal cavity.

Spikes are mainly composed of bone tissue and do not affect the cartilage. During the deformation of the partition can walnuts and have a sharp edge. In such cases the mucous membrane at different sites changes its thickness: its seal has been observed at the place of joints, and thinning on the exposed part of and flexing.

Diagnosis

A deviated septum requires the establishment of correct diagnosis and effective treatment. In some cases it is quite a detailed examination of the patient, although most of the deformation is investigated by means of rhinoscopy. Thus it is possible to determine the nature of deformation, to clarify the location of the protrusions and curves, to track configuration changes of the septum and lateral nasal wall, as well as the state of the mucosa.

Before the appointment of treatment it is advisable to hold the front and back rhinoscopy.

Study by means of x-ray is performed to obtain information about the paranasal sinuses. After identifying all the details, in almost all cases, the operation is conducted, as neither eye drops nor tablets, nor the breathing exercises can eliminate the pathology, and may only temporarily alleviate a patient’s condition.

Surgical methods for the correction of the nasal septum

Correction of nasal septum performed using the following surgical techniques:

  1. Resection is a serious surgery, which removes a significant portion of the nasal plate. Submucosal resection is currently the most reliable way of correcting a deviated nasal septum. Isolated resection is used less often. By the first method is easier to eliminate combined strain in addition to carry out submucous resection technically easier.
  2. Septoplasty is an operation in which adjustments of the nasal septum. The aim of the intervention is to normalize nasal breathing. The choice of method of septoplasty depends on the individual characteristics of the patient and other factors.

The operation is carried out in stationary conditions under the strict supervision of experts. If everything runs smoothly, patients go home and throughout the week be obliged to visit the clinic for the dressings. At the end of the operation, will be installed in the nasal cavity of splints of silicone and cotton swabs. Their removal is carried out the next day.

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The consequences

Because the deviated septum prevents the flow of sufficient oxygen, patients experience the following complications:

  • man begins to rapidly lose interest;
  • it weakens the memory;
  • there are headaches;
  • impaired activity of the nervous, respiratory and urogenital systems;
  • you may receive the arrhythmia and to suffer the brain.

Patients who have marked deformity of the nasal plate, are inclined to frequent catarrhal diseases. Respiratory infections in these patients are characterized by prolonged course and often lead to complications. In particular, inflammation of the mucous membrane provokes the progression of deformation processes in the nasal cavity.

Rhinitis secondary character, sinusitis and insufficient capacity of the nose associated with defects of the nasal septum, leading to pathological changes of the middle ear and Eustachian tube.

Defects of the septum sometimes irritate the nerve endings of the nasal mucosa, thereby increasing the likelihood of neurosis. Most often this happens when you change the location of the ridges and spikes are literally grow into the shell.

The deformation of the septal portion of the nose that was diagnosed at a young age, can manifest much later, even in old age. In many cases, this occurs in the presence of concomitant diseases of the nose, lung inflammation, cardiac plan or other disorders that cause difficulty in breathing through narrowed air passages of the nose.