Acute rhinosinusitis: what is it, symptoms and treatment in children and adults
What is acute rhinosinusitis?
Acute rhinosinusitis belongs to infectious diseases of the upper respiratory tract. Inflammation of the mucous membrane of the nose and paranasal sinuses has identical properties with a cold, which complicates the diagnosis. The lack of timely adequate therapy is dangerous to the development of intracranial complications.
Pathology often affects the immature child’s body, patients with weakened immune protection. In order to identify the disease, you must know what is acute rhinosinusitis, symptoms manifestations and mechanism of resistance.
The etiology of acute rhinosinusitis
Localization of pathogenic strains in the sinuses triggers inflammation. In a state of immunosuppression, the body itself can not cope with the problem, pathological changes affect the inner lining of the respiratory organ.
A response to the intensification of the activity of infectious agents is manifested by edema of the soft tissues, producing copious amounts aconselho secret.
Drainage exit holes, communicating the nasal cavity with the environment and promotes a natural flushing discharge is disturbed, the mucus accumulates in the paranasal sinuses. Congestion creates favorable conditions for the propagation of viruses and bacteria.
The violation of the integrity of the upper respiratory tract caused by the following factors:
- features of the anatomical structure (the narrowness of the nasal passages, benign neoplasms);
- acquired or congenital deformity of bone and cartilage structure of upper body (deviated septum);
- atrophic changes of the mucosa in the result of exposure to aggressive physical or chemical stimuli;
- allergic reactions;
- acute respiratory-viral diseases;
- systematic immersion under water, when the liquid is exhausted outside accumulates in the projection of the nose.
Catalysts for the development of the disease is intoxication of alcohol, narcotic substances, tobacco products.
Acute rhinosinusitis in adult manifested typical symptoms:
- headache, the intensity of which increases with head tilt, palpation;
- high body temperature, over 38⁰С;
- nasal swelling, a noticeable bulge in the recess between the frontal area and the nose;
- a thick aconselho secret;
- violation of the drainage of the nose;
- pulsating and burning pain localized from the ear region to an upper edge of eye sockets;
For reference! Inflammation determines the nature of the headache: the defeat of the maxillary sinuses sensations arise in the cheeks, discomfort in the Central part of the forehead indicates the development of sinusitis, etmoidit — around the nose. For sphenoiditis peculiar dull headache.
- partial or complete alleviation of the perception of odors;
- irritation of the posterior pharyngeal wall, after her secretory discharge;
- by disturbed nocturnal sleep;
- apathy, weakness, fatigue.
For acute rhinosinusitis in older children characteristic the identical signs.
Nuance! Pregnant women diagnosed acute rhinosinusitis infectious nature due to restrictions on antibiotic therapy and the inefficiency of homeopathic products.
Inflammation of the upper respiratory tract differencesbut on various grounds:
- the nature of the pathogen: allergic, infectious/noninfectious, edematous;
- phase of development: catarrhal and purulent;
- the location: the maxillary, ethmoidal, front, spheroidally;
- the form of severity; mild, moderate and severe.
The defeat of the respiratory system actively growing, migrating into the chronic stage. Therefore, while the presence of three or more symptoms, you must seek medical help.
Treatment of acute rhinosinusitis
For full visualization of the clinical picture, determine the etiology of the inflammation of the doctor in addition to endoscopic examination assigns a rhinoscopy of the anterior part of the nose, a smear on flora.
For reference! To instrumental methods studies of acute rhinosinusitis belongs to CT, ultrasound, x-ray.
An integrated approach provides a positive momentum faster recovery time. Conservative methods are complementary to physiotherapy. For the formation of local immunity use the recipes of traditional medicine.
Before irrigation of the mucosa it is advisable to clear the sinuses with saline or moisturizing means on the basis of sea water («Akvamaris», «Markera», «Humer», «Phrase»). This procedure increases the absorption of the medicinal components, increases therapeutic efficacy, normalizes water-salt metabolism.
For the relief of inflammation of the upper respiratory tract using products of different pharmacological groups:
- vasoconstrictor drops. The composition of antikongestanty local application are the components of Xylometazoline, tramazoline («Inmaris», «Galazolin»), Oxymetazoline («Immediately», «I»), naphazoline («Naphazoline»,».»). For children under 3 years appoint sympathomimetic based on fenilafrina («Nazol Baby», «At»). Preparations show anti-edema activity, reduce the hyperemia of soft tissues, prevent inflammation, restore natural breathing through the nose. Use a short course to 5 days, due to development of drug rhinitis;
- mucolytics. Secretolytic utilities affect the physical and chemical properties of sputum. Reduce the viscosity of the pathological secretions, have expectorant action, facilitate the removal of sputum. Drugs proposed in the form of syrup, tablets, drops, solution: «Bronchosan», «Mucosolvan», «Ambrobene», «Bromhexine», «Mukaltin». The duration of treatment determined by the physician individually, the average varies from 7 to 10 days;
- antibiotics. Prescribed for acute bacterial rhinosinusitis etiology. A wide spectrum of actions characterized by such drugs as «Izofra», «Bioparox», «Polideksa». Components of nasal drops penetrate the cytoplasmic membrane of bacterial cells, destroying it from the inside, which leads to death of pathogenic agents. Drugs reduce inflammation of the inner lining and a soft tissue swelling, restore natural breathing through the nose, reduce the formation of fluid;
- corticosteroids. Presented by synthetic analogs of human hormones. Have antitoxic, antishock and desensitizing effect. Complement a comprehensive scheme for allergic rhinitis, sinusitis different etiology, vasomotor rhinitis, polyposis. Local action exhibit pharmacological first line: «almost four years», «Flixonase», «Nasobek», «Nasonex». With caution is prescribed for viral infections, in all periods of gestation, hypersensitivity of the organism to individual components;
- antihistamines. Affect the H1 receptors, blocking the release of histamine. Anti-allergic and antipruritic action has «loratadine», «Zyrtec», «Fenistil». Eliminate Allergy symptoms half an hour after admission, maintain a therapeutic effect up to 24 hours. Active components do not cause any systemic reactions. Prescribed a course of 10 to 15 days, in individual cases up to a month.
Complex therapy Supplement immunomodulatory drugs: «Derinat», «IRS-19». They are used to improve the immune system long course. The patient improves health, restores the drainage function, decreases the secretion mucous secretion, is an inflammatory process, reduces the intensity of pain.
Minimally invasive therapy
With the ineffectiveness of conservative treatment, or for individual reasons (odontogenic pathology form, the anatomy of upper body) designate a puncture of the sinuses. The procedure requires no special training and rehabilitation period. Hold the puncture in the hospital under local anesthesia.
For reference! Puncture of the nose in children using General anesthesia.
A doctor with a needle Kulikovskii makes the puncture point in the middle or lower part of the nasal passages, where the septum is the thinnest. With a syringe extracts the pathological content, washes the nasal cavity with an antiseptic solution.
The advantage of this method is an instant therapeutic effect, the possibility to shorten the course of treatment and number of antibiotics. If necessary, surgical intervention is performed again.
Asunction method of treatment based on the use of sinus catheter. The excretion of secretory discharge flexible pipe 2 and the cylinder on the device to the nasopharynx and the projection of the nostrils. To a sealed nasal cavity a syringe is attached, by means of which are draining purulent exudate.
For reference! The price of AMIC-the procedure is identical with the needling starts from 1500 rubles.
The event does not cause the patient discomfort is low-impact, risks damaging the integrity of the mucous membrane and the bone structure is reduced to zero.
Diagnosis symptoms and treatment of acute rhinosinusitis should be done by an otolaryngologist. Pathology has a tendency to rapid progression, so timely therapy can prevent negative consequences of migration in the chronic stage.