Acute sinusitis: symptoms and treatment with antibiotics, what to do and how to treat
How to treat acute sinusitis?
Inflammation of the inner lining and submucosal layer of the maxillary sinus is called sinusitis. The prefix «sharp» refers to the active progression of the disease, which lasts up to three weeks, then passes into the subacute phase.
The reason for the development of maxillary sinusitis (identical to the name of acute sinusitis) are different types of intracellular pathogens, viral and bacterial infections, less common allergens. Because so many pathogens to achieve positive dynamics it is expedient to conduct comprehensive therapy on an outpatient basis.
What develops sinusitis
The basic mechanism of development is an inflammation of the epithelium of the maxillary sinuses. Violation of the integrity of soft tissue manifested by swelling of the mucous membrane, increased production of myconazole secretion, output of lymph from the capillaries into the tissue cavity.
The nature of the secret produced by the inflammatory process is represented by serous, purulent, catarrhal and mixed forms.
Exogenous and endogenous factors destabilisateur the process of mucociliary clearance (the work of the cilia of the ciliated epithelium that provide the the outflow of nasal secretions), inhibit the function of the Cup-shaped glands.
The consequences of stagnation provoke the following conditions:
- infection of the upper respiratory tract by pathogenic strains;
- localization of benign tumors (polyps, adenoids);
- allergic rhinitis (the reason for this is peculiar to children’s age);
- anatomical changes of bone and cartilaginous structures of the nose.
Violate the natural microflora, inhibit the protective properties of the immune system to adverse environmental conditions (dust, exhaust gases, harmful industrial and domestic conditions).
For reference! Sinusitis viral or bacterial etiology affects both the sinus, when specific forms of unilateral damage occurs.
The main symptoms
To differentiate acute sinusitis may typical signs:
- education and the allocation of a viscous clear secretions,while the bacterial form consistency of mucus increases, becomes yellow or green in color, with impurities purulent masses;
- violation of the drainage of the nasal cavities, labored breathing;
- lower the ability of your perception of aromas, loss of appetite;
- unpleasant sensations in the maxillary sinus projections, frontal and temporal parts, which are enhanced when tilting the head;
- intense headaches;
- febrile condition;
- malaise, weakness;
- the increase in body temperature to subfebrile indicators 38° and higher;
- swelling of the subsidiary bodies of the eye (eyelids), facial soft tissues.
Inflammation of the maxillary sinus is confirmed by clinical signs. To determine the etiology of maxillary sinusitis using differential research techniques to assess the amount, the nature of the contents and microbiological diagnosis.
For reference! One of the most informative imaging techniques change recognized by computed tomography. It allows you to determine the nature, extent and form of soft tissue damage.
If during the first 15 days acute maxillary sinusitis have not been provided with qualified medical aid, the disease passes into the chronic stage, which complicates the recovery process.
How to treat acute sinusitis medication way
Self-medication is dangerous the development of complications in the form of inflammation of the brain, purulent and serous meningitis, the swelling of the meninges, and fatal outcome. The task of the audiologist to ensure the openness of pneumatic cavities, to prevent the proliferation of infections and the formation of scar tissue.
Only the combination therapy can provide a positive momentum to reduce inflammation, clear the sinuses.
Before performing therapeutic procedures it is necessary to clear the nasal channels from the remnants of mucus saline. Preparing it at home is based tablespoon of white crystal in a glass of purified water at a temperature of 35-37°C.
Effective analogues acts pharmaceutical products based on isotonic water with impurities useful minerals – «Akvamaris», «Humer», «no-Sol», «Marimer».
Beneficial moisturizing preparations from different mineral and vegetable complex «Dolphin». It has a preventive and therapeutic effect, creates local immunity, accelerates the process of epithelialization.
Treatment of acute sinusitis with antibiotics
Effective recovery method is used in severe forms of lesions of the paranasal cavities. Pharmaceutical a number of groups of penicillin, cephalosporin, macrolides.
The active ingredients exert a local effect on the lesion, inhibiting the activity of infectious agents. Products of synthetic origin reduces inflammation, mucosal edema, normalize blood circulation of blood vessels, restore the natural breathing.
Drugs are prescribed a course of 5 to 7 days depending on the degree of changes in the oral mucosa, the etiology of the pathogen. Haphazard admission provokes side effects:
- drug-induced rhinitis;
- allergic reactions;
- epistaxis (epistaxis);
- violation of the physiological characteristics of the thinning of the inner shell.
To limit contact with the antibiotic recommended in the period of gestation, lactation, patients with cardiovascular diseases, problems of the thyroid gland, hypertension, tachycardia.
Nuance! To speed up the process of recovery in acute sinusitis will help injections of antibiotics.
A wide spectrum of actions characterized by «Izofra», «Bioparox», «Polideksa», «Azithromycin», drugs of new generation – «Ospamox», «resorption», «Amoxil», «appointment».
The choice always remains for the doctor, because before drafting a medical scheme, it determines the sensitivity of microorganisms to ingredients.
Sekretomotornym effect by reducing the production of mucus, reduce the viscosity and accelerate the elimination of nasal secretions from the maxillary sinuses. Active substances are rapidly absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract, transported to the outside light, together with phlegm.
In case of overdose and hypersensitivity to the components possible side effects: rashes, itching, vomiting, nausea, hyperthermia, dizziness.
Important! To enhance the therapeutic effect of mucolytics is recommended to take in combination with antibiotics.
Widespread in ENT practice received «Muradin», «Fluditec», «Guaifenesin», «Fluimucil». Assign the course to 7 days, daily frequency and dosage determined by the physician based on the form of progression, the physiological characteristics of the patient.
Medical effect of hormonal drugs is to relief of arthralgia, burning sensation in the sinuses, reduce swelling. The patient feels better temporarily, the ability to breathe through the nose.
You should consider the fact that analogs of human hormones can provoke adverse reactions: depression of the immune defense, atrophy of the tissue structure. For intranasal use in the treatment and prevention of exacerbations of chronic sinusitis using «almost four years», «Nasonex» short course up to 7 days.
Effective in the early stages of inflammation. Pharmaceutical products based on bacterial lysates inhibit the localization and multiplication of infectious agents. The therapeutic effect is manifested through the enhancement of the phagocytic activity of macrophages, increasing concentrations of lysozyme.
Prescribed for the formation of local immunity, the treatment of acute diseases of the upper respiratory tract. Contraindicated in patients with autoimmune disorders, hypersensitivity to the individual components.
Line of tools first presented «IRS-19». The drug is used intranasally, by aerosol irrigation of the epithelium at the same dose, daily frequency of 3-5 treatments to a full recovery.
Palliative (symptomatic) therapy
What to do in acute sinusitis mild? The first degree of pathology tends to the solution in a natural way.
To combat common symptoms, alleviate the patient’s condition using the following pharmacological groups of drugs:
- vasoconstrictor. Help strengthen the natural message of the nasal cavity with paranasal sinuses, ensure air permeability of the channels. A medicinal liquid having systemic effects on blood vessels through reducing swelling, normalizes nasal breathing 5-10 minutes after instillation, relieves symptoms of nasal congestion for up to 8 hours. Recommended to use «Glycine», «Nazivin», «Sanorin». Doctors prefer the combined drugs («Rinofluimutsil», «At») or plant-based essential oils content («Cold», «Sinofert»);
- analgesics. They are used to reduce the symptoms of headaches, improve the General condition of the patient. Release drugs in tablet form, syrups, suppositories, injections. The list of anti-inflammatory drugs represented by the «Advil», «Ibuprofen,» «Aspirin», «Paracetamol». The necessity of taking and the dosage determines the severity of the pain;
- decongestants. Are catalysts, triggers constriction of blood vessels, thereby decreasing swelling of the inner lining of the nose, restoring the drainage of the paranasal sinuses. High therapeutic efficiency is shown with the inhalation method of administration. In ENT practice widely used «Nazol», «Nazivin», «Oxymetazoline», «LUKOIL».
Important! With the defeat of the upper respiratory tract, in part, of the maxillary sinuses, exogenous and endogenous factors are blockading the histamine receptors. Inhibition of allergic forms of expression contributes to «loratadine», «Fenistil, Fenkarol», «Levocetirizine».
In the absence of signs of intoxication, the availability of channels of communication with the nasal cavity prescribed physiotherapy.
The validity of the ultrahigh-frequency therapy, electrophoresis, ultrasonic irradiation is to normalize blood circulation in the lesion, improving the rheological characteristics of nasal mucus. Complex physiotherapy complement a warming, massage, inhalation.
Treatment of sinusitis surgically
Perforation of the maxillary sinus with a needle to remove the contents of exudates and treatment of the paranasal cavities drugs in modern medicine is practiced rarely. This fact explains the high efficiency of antibacterial therapy and a significant risk of complications after the puncture.
When a high probability of rhinosinusogenic intracranial complications in the punctured region enter the drain tube. Therapeutic manipulation provide continuous outflow aconselho secret and to facilitate the passage of air, the possibility of applying medicines in the affected area.
Symptoms and treatment of acute sinusitis have a causal relationship. For the compilation of the therapeutic scheme Dr. identificeret etiology of the disease. Most often the maxillary sinus amaze pathogenic strains are not resistant to the products of synthetic compounds.
Significant place in the treatment of maxillary sinusitis antibiotics are reserved.