Adenocarcinoma of the ovary: causes, forms, symptoms and treatment
Adenocarcinoma of ovary — malignant tumor in the structure of the female reproductive gland. This type of cancer arises from the glandular epithelial cells, which lined surface on the inside. Glandular tumors of the ovary are relatively rare and can be successfully treated in the early stages, but early detection of them difficult. Running actively adenocarcinoma metastasize to neighboring organs and often lead to death.
The disease affects mostly women over the age of 40, which is associated with age-related changes in the body and specifically in the reproductive system, hormonal disruptions.
Causes of adenocarcinoma of the genital glands
The specific reasons that causes the development of glandular ovarian cancer, no. The disease is caused by set of factors, chief among which are genetics, and hormonal changes.
Proven genetic predisposition to oncological diseases of the reproductive system. The scientists were even able to identify the genes, mutations in which may cause the formation of malignant tumors. Therefore, the presence of a family history of female cases of glandular cancer of the reproductive system and mammary glands is an important risk factor for the development of adenocarcinoma.
Glandular tissue has a high susceptibility to the action of hormones, it is not surprising that disrupting the normal function of the endocrine system with a high probability leads to pathological changes in the glands. Such failures can be caused by dozens of different factors:
- metabolic disorders, obesity, diabetes;
- the use of hormonal drugs (for example, for the treatment of female infertility) and oral contraceptives;
- irrational diet, excess animal fats (polyunsaturated) in the diet;
- the action of harmful environmental factors: ionizing radiation, toxic substances, adverse environment as a whole;
- unsteady menstrual cycle, disruptions of the cycle, earlier menarche and late menopause;
- infertility and long postponing the first pregnancy;
- chronic inflammatory processes of the genital and urinary systems, myoma of the uterus;
- removal of one ovary other operations on the genitals;
- age-related hormonal changes.
It is important to note that pregnancy is kind of a Normalizer of hormonal women, of course, if it proceeds without complications. Parous women are less prone to development of cancer of the reproductive system and mammary glands.
Forms of the disease
Glandular cancers may have a different structure, activity and histological structure. There are several varieties of adenocarcinoma.
- vysokomehanizirovannoe — tumor cells are indistinguishable from healthy;
On histological structure:
- clear cell;
Of these, the most favorable prognosis is of papillary adenocarcinoma, it is also the most frequently diagnosed. Serous and clear cell forms are actively growing and metastasize.
According to the degree of tumor development:
- the first stage of the pathology is localized in the ovaries without affecting other organs;
- the second stage — the defeat of the peritoneal sheath in the small pelvis;
- the third stage is the metastasis of the tumor infiltrating the liver and adjacent organs, the inguinal lymph nodes;
- stage four — advanced tumor, metastases spread throughout the body, reaching distant organs (lungs, brain).
Symptoms of ovarian adenocarcinoma
Adenocarcinoma of the ovary is a tricky disease. To detect it at early stages is almost impossible, because it does not show. Even when the tumor reaches considerable size, the symptoms are not specific, and may resemble many other disorders. Very often a suspected cancerous lesion of the ovary occurs the latest, eliminating other possible causes. By this point the cancer is already widely spread in the female body.
Signs that may indicate a tumor:
- violations of menstrual cycle, irregular menstruation;
- implicit nagging pain in the lower abdomen, if a tumor develops inflammation;
- pain during sexual intercourse;
- when large amounts of the tumor — the feeling of squeezing, heaviness, bloating;
- violation of bowel function, constipation up to intestinal obstruction;
- loss of appetite, weight loss, deterioration in General health;
- with the defeat of the liver, ascites, dropsy of the abdominal cavity.
Any of these signs can indicate many diseases, not having cancer nature. However, to ignore them in any case impossible. Showing attention to their health in time, it is possible to detect a dangerous disease in its early stage, which is the main condition of successful treatment.
In the diagnosis of ovarian cancer is not only important to put the correct overall diagnosis, but also accurately determine the type of tumor. The accuracy of a doctor’s opinion depends on the choice of the direction of therapy and the success of treatment in General.
In the first place, the medical practitioner must examine the patient and carefully collect medical history. Any episode of cancer in the woman’s family increases the probability of detecting her cancer.
A preliminary examination of the ovaries is carried out in the gynecological chair bimanual method. This is determined by the size, structure, degree of mobility of the body.
For accurate diagnosis it is necessary to conduct some additional research:
- Hardware visualization of the ovaries by ultrasound exposure (ECG), and imaging (CT, MRI). During the procedure detected pathological tumors, determine the stage of their development, the spread of metastasis.
- Blood and fluid from the abdominal cavity for the presence of markers of glandular cancer. These studies can give a false positive result in some conditions (endometriosis, adnexal), however, they have important diagnostic value.
- Biopsy of ovarian tissue with subsequent laboratory study sample. So it is possible to establish the nature of the mass, its possible malignancy.
- Medical diagnostic laparoscopy. Examination of the abdominal cavity from the inside using a special camera allows you to assess the extent of the problem and, if necessary, immediately make the necessary manipulations to remove the tumor.
Treatment of adenocarcinoma of the ovaries
Therapeutic measures depend on the stage of the disease, the type and behavior of the cancer, the health status of women. In most cases, surgical treatment is indicated with the preceding and subsequent chemotherapy.
If possible, the operation is performed with maximum preservation of the ovary, removes only the tumor. On the scale of the operation also affects the age of the patient, condition of reproductive function, pregnancy planning in the future. If the cancer is actively growing, it makes sense the complete removal of the ovary, and in some cases also of the uterus and peritoneal omentum.
Chemotherapy aims to prevent disease recurrence, to destroy preserved in the body of abnormal cells. Radiation therapy and hormonal drugs in the treatment of adenocarcinoma are not used.
To monitor the dynamic health of the patient after surgery.
If the operation cannot be carried out, for example, the condition of the patient, possible multiple drug therapy with chemotherapy and irradiation.
Forecasts for ovarian cancer
The sooner a tumor is discovered, the more favorable the prognosis. After removal of adenocarcinoma the first or second probability of five-year survival rate is over 90%. When widespread metastasis is only 15%.
Forecasts, moreover, are determined by the General health of a woman, her age, concomitant diseases, diet, lifestyle.