Anatomy of the nose: nasal cavity, nasal passages, the structure of the external nose

How the human nose?

The human nose performs a number of important functions. Pictures of the functional divisions of this organ, known to all from the school course of anatomy, evaluate its complex structure.

The most important functions of the authority

The nasal cavity performs the following functions:

  • respiratory;
  • protective;
  • the recognition of odours;
  • the function of the resonator.

Thanks to the breathing function provided by the intake of necessary amount of oxygen to all tissues. This ensures that the vital functions of the body. If breathing is difficult the amount of incoming oxygen is reduced. This leads to disruption of all major systems of the body: hematopoietic, nervous and cardiovascular.

Interesting fact: the amount of oxygen that enters the body by mouth breathing, about 25% lower than when breathing through the nose.

The mucosa has a protective function. It helps to purify inhaled air from harmful impurities. The main filter is the mucus that secrete goblet cells. This myconazole secret is able to retain the smallest particles of dust. Before getting into the lungs, air passes through three stages is a cleaning, moisturizing and warming.

Olfactory function through improved digestion, as in response to the smell of delicious food increases the secretion of gastric enzymes.

The nose is the most important resonator, which gives the voice resonance and depth.

Anatomy of the external nose

The human nose consists of three functional departments:

  • the external nose;
  • the nasal cavity;
  • paranasal sinuses.

The external nose is the part of the body that is visible to the naked eye.

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Anatomy the external nose consists of three parts. These are the bones of the nose, the cartilaginous part and musculo-cutaneous cover, protecting the soft tissues and mobility of the tip.

The size of the nose is determined by the amount of adipose tissue located under the skin at the front of the body.

The basis of the organ is the nasal bones. They are located symmetrically and at the connection form the back.

Of cartilaginous tissue formed wings and the tip. In the lower part is soft, movable partition, which is called the columella. She separates the nostrils.

On the nose are located:

  • sebaceous glands;
  • hair follicles;
  • capillaries;
  • nerve fibers.

As you know, injuries of this organ accompanied by profuse bleeding and severe pain. This is due to the large number of superficially located capillaries in this area.

The compression and swelling of the nostrils is provided by the muscles.

The structure of the nasal cavity

Anatomy of the nasal cavity is formed by the vestibule, respiratory and olfactory region. In this part are the most important organ function.

The cavity is divided into the cartilaginous septum into two symmetrical stroke. Opening communicating these passages with the nasal passages are called choanae. Anatomy of the nasal passages is limited to the upper palatal bone and the wings on.

The threshold is the anterior part of the cavity bounded by the wings. The threshold contains a large number of hairs that provide primary filtration of air.

Breathing refers to an area of the cavity between the bone of the upper palate and the middle part of the wings. It is covered with mucous membrane, whose cells secrete mucus, capturing the fine dust particles and normalize the temperature of the inhaled air.

Interesting! The mucus secreted in the respiratory part of the nose, has antiseptic properties, owing to which the protective function of the body. On average, the mucus suppresses about 10 million of pathogenic microorganisms that enter the cavity when you inhale.

Olfactory division is located in the upper part of the nose. Detection of odors is performed by a special receptor, which is covered with the epithelium of this region.

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The structure of the sinuses

Anatomy of the nose contains 4 pairs of sinuses. The names of these parts of the nose:

  • frontal;
  • maxillary;
  • wedge-shaped;
  • lattice.

Take a closer look.

The frontal sinus located in frontal part of the skull. Each sinus formed by the four walls. A small channel connects the sinus with the nasal passage. The lower part of the sinus (wall) is located just above the eye socket. The middle wall separating a pair of sinuses in the left and right, and the rear is located directly at the frontal lobe of the brain, separated from it by a thin partition.

The maxillary sinus is also called the maxillary. It is the largest nasal sinus. They start a little above the teeth of the upper jaw and reach the wall of the orbit.

Sphenoid sinus is located near the pituitary gland, carotid artery and lower part is connected with the nasopharynx.

Ethmoid sinus is a complex labyrinth structure and located between the eye socket and nasal cavity. A thin bony septum divides the sinus into the cells.

If a person is healthy, sinuses constantly runs the air. Infectious and bacterial lesions of the sinuses or lesions in them lead to the violation of free circulation of air. The result is inflammatory disease.

With the defeat of the maxillary sinuses diagnosed sinusitis. This disease is often a complication of an infectious rhinitis, which was not timely cured.

Special health hazard is simultaneous inflammation of all paranasal sinuses. This disease is called pansinusitis and requires timely treatment.