Anosmia: what it is, causes and treatment of the disease

How to treat anosmia?

In modern life the ability to recognize odors plays an important role. There are jobs where no good scent can not do, for example, a perfumer, a taster. In addition, the olfactory organ and provides a protective function — just smelling the smell of smoke or chemicals, you will save your life.

People lost their sense of smell, no longer able to perceive the world as before. Loss of smell not only leads to discomfort in daily life, but can cause many problems. The affliction is called anosmia and is often one of the early signs of most pathologies.

Anosmia: what is it?

Anosmia is a rare disease, this term usually indicates a complete loss of smell, but most patients have selective anosmia. Alleviation of the sense of smell and partial loss called hyposmia.

Both abnormalities may be either congenital or acquired. The occurrence of diseases grounded quite understandable reasons.

Causes of anosmia

The occurrence of anosmia is the result of lesions of the olfactory receptors. These complications can occur as a result of many diseases. These include diseases of infectious nature, such as sinusitis, accompanied by suppurative inflammation, varying degrees of encephalitis, infectious neuritis of the auditory nerve, malignant tumors in the brain, fractures of the nose, lesions of the ethmoid bone developed as a result of nicotine poisoning.

Hyposmia can be caused absolutely other reasons. It is therefore important to conduct quality diagnosis. Variety of disease and degree of neglect of the process may depend on whether the disease is life-threatening symptom or manifestation of a harmless, easily treatable.

At the moment there are two main types of anosmia:

  • Central;
  • peripheral.

Central anosmia

Central anosmia is a result of the intracerebral lesions due to the violation of the functional characteristics of the CNS. This type of disease may be provoked by the development of brain tumors, cerebrovascular disease, accompanied by hemorrhages.

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This disease is often diagnosed on the background of multiple sclerosis and syringobulbia. Decreased sense of smell there is at the same side where the lesion. The development of the Central anosmia often occurs as a result of traumatic brain injury, and surgery are no exception.

One of the symptoms of the disease is a kind of smell that patients themselves recognize not.

Peripheral anosmia

Peripheral anosmia is divided into several subtypes:

  • essential;
  • functional;
  • senile;
  • respiratory.

For essential anosmia is characteristic of lesions of the olfactory analyzer resulting from the development of an active inflammatory process which spread from the respiratory part of the nose to the olfactory region. This disease may occur as a result of development of atrophic processes of epithelial tissue, and prolonged excessive pressure on the olfactory area in the nasal polyps. Illness can serve as surgery or chemical trauma.

Development of respiratory anosmia is the result of restricted air flow in the area of perception of olfactory sensations. The emergence of barriers to the ingress of air that is caused by pathological disorders in the nasal cavity. These include polyphonie education, the deformation of the nasal septum, the different nature of the tumor and seals, as well as hypertrophic changes of the nasal passages and cavities. With the defeat of the nerve endings of the respiratory anosmia is used to switch to essential.

Functional anosmia is intermittent. These symptoms are usually accompanied by neurotic state.

The occurrence of senile anosmia occurs in atrophic changes in the mucous membrane as the result of neurotic manifestations. This pathology leads to a decrease in humidity in the nasal cavity, even in cases where the peripheral part of the analyzer is unchanged.

The main symptom of anosmia of any kind is a reduction of smell, which bears persistent.


Diagnosis of anosmia in the first place is based on the identification of the causes of the disease. A fundamental role plays the etiology of the disease.

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Anosmia unilateral nature has no obvious signs and detect violations for a given scenario is possible only if you survey the cavities of the nose. Significant discomfort, patients begin to experience severe symptoms of bilateral anosmia. Usually they occur loss of taste perception and odor.

The survey used tests with different sharp smells to identify the degree of loss of smell and analysis of qualitative sensations.

Required also is a detailed examination of the organs of smell and hearing AIDS, upper respiratory tract, as well as the assessment of the functional characteristics of the cranial nerves.

The patient’s condition is ascertained on the basis of olfactometric samples when considering the influence of cranial nerves, including the trigeminal. Detection of brain tumors, nasal and paranasal sinuses is performed by CT with contrast enhancement. Applied and biopsy neurological epithelium. In this case, it is considered that degenerative pyroprocess not always accompanied by impairment of smell.

Treatment of anosmia

Recovery of smell in many cases is based on the elimination of causal factors, often acting as independent diseases.

The treatment of atrophic rhinitis involves medical therapy and local treatments that can ease the condition.

Effect can be achieved by clearing the nose of purulent secretions, lavage of the sinuses with antiseptic solutions and decoctions of medicinal herbs.

At the same time can be assigned antimicrobials: Ciprofloxacin, Amikacin, Acetylcysteine for instillation into the nose, external ointments and vitamins.

The same can be said regarding the treatment of chronic sinusitis. Although in this case, in addition to the elimination of purulent content from the sinuses by flushing and suction, along with antibiotic therapy may be more advanced methods.

In other cases, the treatment is not without surgical intervention, carried out in order to ensure the smooth flow of air to the olfactory receptors. In this case we are talking about the removal of tumors, correction of the nasal walls, the elimination of the consequences of traumatic brain injury and so on.

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Anosmia, which occurs due to a viral infection, is treatable, that you can not fully count in post-traumatic anosmia.

How to treat anosmia in a particular case, must decide by a qualified technician.

Traditional methods

Along with drug therapy to treat the disease can be used traditional methods.

Solutions for nasal lavage:

  • sea water with the addition of iodine (10 drops per Cup of water);
  • the juice of horseradish root, diluted with purified water 1:1;
  • beet juice with honey;
  • decoction of chamomile.

For the preparation of medicinal decoction can be taken in equal parts leaves of celandine, Moran and bučovice and stir. 1 tbsp pour boiling water, to insist 10 minutes, strain and use for washing. With the same purpose can be used and an infusion of wormwood.


Anosmia is a serious pathology that occurs due to many diseases and injuries of the head. Treatment of manifestations is required and than before to conduct high-quality diagnostics and take appropriate action, the better.