Antral follicles in the ovaries: features
Follicles are important structural components of the ovaries. This is because the follicles are formed and Mature oocyte. Sexual reproduction directly depends on the structure and operation of the follicles. Ovarian follicles develop and Mature strictly according to the phases. This sequence is provided in the body for the entire process of reproduction.
In the constantly recurring changes in paired glands there are three main phases:
- Growth and formation of the dominant spherical formations.
- The emergence of eggs from the ovary.
- The emergence, evolution and removal of the corpus luteum.
After the girl was born in her steam iron are two million spherical formations, 99 % of which undergo atresia throughout life. Under the appearance of atresia refers to reverse the development of spherical formations on one of the stages of its individual phases. By the time the first menstrual period in the steam iron is up to four hundred thousand spherical formations, three hundred of which undergo a sequence of maturation to the stage of ovulation.
How to construct a spherical education in the paired glands
The follicles have certain characteristic features in structure. Follicles paired glands, located on the left and right sides have no differences between them in structure or physiology. Each spherical education is the female reproductive cell during its growth in one of the paired glands.
Directly outside this reproductive cell surrounded by a layer of glycoproteins, which is a layer of granulosa cells. Outside the granulosa layer is the basement membrane – extracellular matrix, around which the theca cells.
Gradual maturation of spherical formations
All the follicles in the ovaries, both the right and left sides, go through the relevant stages of maturation:
- Preantral (primary).
- Antral (secondary).
- Preovulatory (tertiary).
The root cause of infertility in women, you can note the inconsistency of the processes in the ovaries. Women who for a long period of time are not able to get pregnant experts guide to ultrasound examination. Using ultrasound and other techniques to determine the number of secondary follicles matured in the ovaries.
Overview of antral spherical education
Antral spherical formations in paired glands, are small, two to eight millimeters. They were counted in order to determine ovarian reserve, which is able to produce the egg. From this number of follicles will depend on the future pregnancy of a woman.
The lack of antral follicles on much reduces the chances of getting pregnant. The ability of females to conceive normally and carry a fetus to term is not always dependent on their age. Lack of antral follicles can be any woman. Ovarian reserve is extremely important especially when used such reproductive techniques as IVF and other popular techniques.
Predicted the chances of pregnancy by number of antral follicles
- Count the number of boundaries, which is from 11 to 26. With this value the antrum of the spherical mass is in the normal range. A sufficient number of follicles tells about a favorable outcome for conception.
- Count the number of neighbouring 6 to 11 follicles. Such a numerical range, said that antral spherical formations are not able to bring one hundred percent pregnancy. In this case, the probability of fertilization is average. Some patients are recommended to have a pair of glands stimulation by gonadotropin. Human chorionic gonadotropin is a hormone which is capable of stimulation spherical formations, as well as positively influence the Mature egg to be released from the steam gland, and also the secret of sex hormones secreted by ovaries.
- There are numbers less than 4. In this case, stimulation of the paired glands will not bring any result. Women with such a quantitative result, the antral follicle propose to use donor eggs or think about adoption of a child. A small number of antral follicles could affect the onset of early menopause.
- There are a number more than 26. In this case, the patient is diagnosed with polycystic paired glands. Polycystic disease occurs due to the emergence of hormonal imbalance, which leads to lack of ovulation and subsequently the body’s inability to produce offspring. In these cases it is recommended to use small doses of gonadotropin to prevent giperstimulyatsii paired glands. Most often polycystic paired glands contain defective oocytes, which blocks the process of fertilization and leads to the interruption of gestation in the early stages.
Accurate count and methods for determining antral follicles
To make the counting of antral spherical formations capable professionals of any recovery clinics for women’s health. In many cases, when examined organs of sexual reproduction, the specialist counting only those formations that give clear consideration. Some of them due to their small size just not visible or scrutiny.
Before a final diagnosis, a woman must undergo a number of other studies. In modern clinics practice a sufficient amount of methods in order to explore the ability of a woman to conceive a child. Doctors aim to determine the amount of paired glands, inhibin a levels In, the level of the hormone which helps to stimulate the spherical formations and antimullerian hormone.
Guided all obtained data it is possible to speak with confidence about the ovarian reserve of patients who applied. The treatment plan for each patient individually. Everything will depend on the research results. In the algorithm of treatment may include: ovarian stimulation with gonadotropin, the use of donor oocytes, the use of the methods of IVF or ICSI.
Methodology for the calculation of secondary spherical formations of a kind quite accurately gives an accurate picture and popular in medical practice. Modern medicine allows us to understand the inability of women to get pregnant, and depending on the obtained results, to draw up a plan of further treatment.
Determination of the level of primordial spherical formations of non-invasive techniques to date is not possible. Because of this, the doctors and the practice of counting antral formation. Also today there is no clear understanding in the study of secondary structures with rather small diameters from 2 to 10 millimeters. The study of the shape of paired glands allows to evaluate the ovarian reserve and the possibility of successful IVF. This measurement is weighted with the number of spherical formations, the higher it is, the greater the likelihood of a positive fertilization of the egg.