Audiogram of the hearing — what it is, decryption
What is an audiometry hearing and the transcript
In the modern world the first thing ill man in the case of a cold or flu is a nasopharynx and ears. Problems with hearing are very common. Not all methods allow to identify them. However, there is a method that helps to detect violations – audiometric hearing examination.
Using this method conduct research on individual sensitivity to sound waves. This procedure allows to determine the quality of the hearing and, if the patient, there are deviations from the norm, and identifies them. To carry out this study should be under the supervision of otolaryngologist.
Basic concepts audiometry
Today people have disorders of perception of sounds caused by many inflammatory or infectious diseases. Methodology for assessing the condition of hearing and violations, if they are available – audiometry.
The main function of the survey is the measurement of hearing acuity, the perception of different frequency sounds.
In addition, audiometry is used in such indicators as:
- the average or internal otitis;
- inflammation of the inner ear;
- a significant loss of sensitivity sounds;
- inflammation of the auditory nerve, which is manifested by tinnitus;
- a strong trauma to the head or ears.
It is important to know that this type of survey has no side effects.
After the examination, the patient receives an audiogram. In this article we will examine the question, what is the audiogram of the hearing?
To understand the charts audiogram and to understand their value, you need to decipher the terms on the method.
There are two characteristics of sound:
- The average power at which the sound wave is transferred through a single platform. For example, in a medical office;
- A value expressing the number of repetitions in the form of Hertz.
In the first case, pressure sounds is the intensity. It is noted in decibels.
The frequency of the tone can be determined by the number of vibrations per second. It is noted in Hertz.
There are low, medium and high Hertz. They range from 500 to 4000 Hertz.
Audiometry allows you to accurately determine disturbances in the perception of sounds. Therefore, developed two types of tests:
speech is a common, but outdated method by which to measure hearing acuity, and to determine the sensitivity to sounds of different height and frequency. This type does not require additional medications. Is carried out using a physician-audiologist.
For this procedure the doctor must be located six metres from the patient, and to pronounce words at different frequencies. The task of the patient to repeat them. This method has a significant disadvantage: subjectivity research, as well as the difficulty of determining the difference between the left and right ear;
pure-tone audiometry is a common technique in which the degree of sensitivity of sounds is measured in decibels. The frequency of the sounds increases every thirty seconds. The task of the patient to press the button when just starting to hear sounds.
Novelty of research consists in that it allows you to identify abnormalities in the ear canal at different frequencies, and effectively determine the sensitivity of each ear.
After conducting speech research, the doctor immediately decides the diagnosis. It is of several types:
- If the patient hears a loud speech, but has difficulty in the analysis of the whisper – patient first stage of hearing loss.
- At the second degree of hearing loss the patient is hearing speech at a distance of from two to four meters but the whisper can only make out at arm’s length.
- In the third stage, the patient is not able to parse the whispers and ordinary speech is perceived only at a distance of one meter.
- The most severe form of the disease is considered the fourth. At this stage the patient hears only very loud sounds.
For an accurate diagnosis after tonal audiometry, the doctor analyzes the audiogram.
Typically, the audiogram shows two kinds of axes:
- Horizontal is the frequency of sounds and their vibrations per second. It is noted in Hertz;
- Vertical is the intensity of sound is greatest in decibels.
In addition, depicted on the audiogram bone conduction the sound.
Method of measurement
For the doctor-audiologist hearing tests with specialized equipment natural procedure, which he performs daily.
Commonly, the procedure is as follows.
The patient will log in and isolated from contact with extraneous sounds, the booth, which isolated the contact with external sounds. Next, you need to wear special headphones.
You should know that the audiometry of the right and left ear is not at the same time.
Every earphone comes sound different heights in intensity and frequency.
Near the patient will be the equipment which has a specialized button. It should be clicked each time you hear certain sounds.
Combining the result obtained, it turns out two charts: for bone survey for air research.
The patient notes points value of each sound.
After this procedure, a specialist will examine bone conduction. The skull of the patient is fixed with a particular device. It will transmit the sound waves directly into the inner area of the ear, passing the middle ear.
In this procedure, with the patient end, and begins the research work of the audiologist.
Deciphering the audiogram hearing
The correct interpretation of the audiogram will show the status of your hearing. Also thanks to the graphics, is determined by the degree of diseases of the ear and type of hearing loss, if present.
Correct diagnosis and decrypting influences the choice of many medications or hearing AIDS. Therefore, the correct diagnosis in this matter is very important.
Please note that on the forms both ears shown separately. Commonly sign them or distinguish color.
Right ear on the charts is in red and the left blue.
Air conduction each time point, and bone chart wavy.
On the horizontal axis from left to right displays the frequency. They start from 125 Hz to reach up to 8000 Hz, and in some cases sometimes higher.
Vertical note the level the sound intensity ranging from five decibels to 100 dB. In different variations reach 110 or 120 decibels.
Note that the frequency of the sounds marked with dots. The survey connect them. Thus, it turns out schedule.
It is known that the higher up the table, the ear of the patient better.
Pay attention to the result table. The differences between the two graphs is called bone-air interval.
There are three types of results provided that the problems with the organ of hearing:
- reduced sensitivity of sounds, subject to the diseases of the inner ear;
- hearing loss associated with shortness of conduction of sound waves;
- the combination of the two previous types.
Provided that the bone graph is in normal condition and the schedule of the air is below the permissible limits is an indicator of a disease such as conductive hearing loss.
If the schedule of the bone zvukoprovodnost identical air – you have sensorineural hearing loss.
Assuming that the two charts depict the deviations and violations patient revealed a mixed hearing loss.
Stage of disease is divided into four stages:
- The first degree is shown in the range from 25 to 40 decibels.
- The second notable range is 41 dB.
- Violations from 55 to 70 decibels is shown at the third stage.
- Absolute deafness occurs when the degree of decibels above 71 decibels.
When any indicators of hearing can be considered normal
After reviewing the question of how to decipher the audiogram of the hearing, review the standards of hearing acuity.
The primary measure of hearing acuity is the distance at which the patient perceives the speech. Recall that sounds can be of two types:
The standard measure of norms in speech, a whisper is considered to be a distance of not less than six meters. At high sounds – about 20 meters.
Please note that in the study in which the study should be as quiet.
For effective examination verbal examination, the patient stands sideways and looks at the doctor. It is necessary for the purity of the study. The other ear should be tightly closed with his hand.
If the patient does not hear the spoken sounds by a physician, the expert becomes closer to the patient.
If the patient has made a tonal audiometry pay attention to graphics.
The norm of human hearing in the graphs from 0 to 25 decibels.
You should know that there are many types and methods for analysis of hearing acuity, in addition to audiometry.
If you have a hearing loss are assigned additional complex measures.
After the patient underwent a full investigation, assigned the methods of getting rid of the disease. The choice in this matter is vast: from drug treatment to surgical intervention.
However, in all cases, the formulation of therapies is determined only by the attending physician.
To prevent get yourself checked at least twice a year.