BCG therapy for bladder cancer: features of the
BCG is a weak living organism Mycobacterium tuberculosis. It is used mostly for the children, for vaccination of the disease. But in recent years it is often used to treat a variety of tumors of the bladder.
BCG vaccine is administered into the body for the prevention of tuberculosis. However, it can help in bladder cancer, if the disease is in the surface form. It is necessary to introduce the vaccine directly to the inside of the body.
The vaccine BCG is an immunotherapeutic drug, but, unfortunately, today doctors still do not know exactly what kind of effect it has on the disease. It is expected that with its help, amplifies the immune system, and she, in turn, helps to fight cancer cells.
Therapy in such a way that applies not only abroad but also in domestic.
Indications for use of vaccine
This vaccine reduces the likelihood of relapse in the lining of the bladder and reduces the risk of penetration into other tissues and organs of the body. That is why it is used when there is a risk of the disease returning, or the proliferation of tumor throughout the body.
To be more precise, this risk may occur if:
- Was diagnosed with carcinoma in situ. When surgical intervention, it is completely removed, as it has a flat shape and often grows deep into the body.
- In cancer of the third degree.
- The tumor is more than three centimeters, or a few formations.
Before the introduction of vaccines, the doctor will have conversation with patients on the topic of BCG therapy and explain why it is the most appropriate way. If you have already had a surgery, then the introduction should take a break of fourteen days. And only after that starts the therapy with BCG.
Therapy using vaccine for bladder cancer that takes place in the period up to six weeks inclusive. Then is a break of a month and a half, and after treatment resumed. During this period, injections are given once a week. It can be one or three times.
If the patient after such therapy feels better, and the results of the treatment exceeded all expectations, then the injections are assigned once a week for 1 ― 3 weeks every six months. This treatment is called supportive, it lasts three years.
However, the therapy of each individual patient. Therefore, its length in each case will be different.
- TB disease.
- The size of the Mantoux more than seventeen millimeters.
- Immune disorders.
- Inflammatory processes of the genitourinary system.
- Blood in the urine.
- Complex diseases.
The process of vaccination
On the day of the procedure, you cannot use other medications besides those prescribed for health reasons. If the patient has an infection in the urethra or other irregularities when urinating, before you start the procedure, it is necessary to heal the patient of these symptoms and then to go for the vaccination.
All the procedures related to the prevention of recurrence, should be started only after three weeks after surgery for removal of tumors.
The procedure of vaccination lasts for three hours, performed on an outpatient basis. At the end, the patient is sent home.
To prepare for the procedure, the patient should be to use less liquid. This will help to increase the concentration of the vaccine in a bubble. And of course, the main reason is the overflow of the bladder.
If during this period the patient is taking drugs that accelerate the process of urine excretion, then, for a while, you need to stop. Before the procedure the doctor will hold a conversation with the patient and give a little advice on how to prepare for the process itself.
BCG therapy for bladder cancer is performed as follows. The patient lies on the stomach, so it was convenient. In the wall of the bladder catheter, and through him begins to receive BCG therapy. The first fifteen minutes, you must hold without moving, and then you can stand up and even walk. But, unfortunately, the toilet can not walk until a certain time. And all because of that drug as long as possible must be on to provide the necessary impact. In some cases the catheter is not removed, so the drug remains in the bladder to impact on him.
When the time of the procedure has passed, you can go «small», but this should merge with the BCG, through the left catheter.
When therapy for cancer is over, it is necessary to take precautions. This is because the vaccine is alive, and it can have some influence on other people. So when you visit the toilet, you should avoid getting urine on the toilet seat or on the hands. After visiting the toilet, the toilet is treated with potent bleach to remove the remnants of the vaccine (leave it for fifteen minutes). After this time, not raising the lid, the water goes down it. Despite these measures, the nurse warns the patient medical institution.
The negative signs of the conducted process can be: pain when urinating, blood in the urine. The greater the number of procedures performed, the stronger the side effects. In some cases they are themselves, and some should go to the clinic.
All the side effects passed after BCG therapy for bladder cancer, of course, connected with that body. Because the medicine is injected directly inside the body. After two days they disappear. But if not, then immediately consult the doctor.
So the side effects were less after the procedure should eat more fluid, then the vaccine will be quickly withdrawn from the body. You can also take painkillers.
In very rare cases, side effect can be fever, increased body temperature, cough and joint pain. If you encounter these signs, you should immediately consult a doctor. This may be the first signal of a terrible infection which has to be treated immediately. If the fears are confirmed, the doctor will prescribe antibacterial drugs used for treatment of tuberculosis.
Two patients out of ten, may begin as acute cystitis. If he does not pass by the beginning of next procedure, the treatment should be discontinued.
And in very rare cases may be allergic to the drug.
How to protect a sexual partner
Required during sexual intercourse to use a condom. Especially this should be done in the first week after the procedure. Because the vaccine can be in semen and vaginal fluids.
The required protection
During treatment with a vaccine, you can not get pregnant because it is unknown how the drug may affect the fetus development.
In the treatment process, the use of effective protection, for one and a half months. All the details you can ask the doctor.
The use of interferon
BCG therapy of bladder tumors can also be carried out with the use of interferon. This is a medical tool that directs the immune system to fight cancer cells.
Was conducted clinical studies that showed that a small Doha vaccine and interferon, is able to prevent the recurrence of the disease in those who helped clean vaccine.
However, in order to accurately determine the effectiveness of such combination, further testing required.