Bladder cancer: causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment
Cancer tumor in the bladder is fairly common today the disease, greatly shortening the life expectancy of people. Increased growth of cancer cells, which tend to have mutations, can be caused by many reasons.
Such an important mechanism as the urinary system of the body, with the defeat of the malignant cells cause the patient great difficulties not only in the aspect of pain. Bladder cancer – a serious illness, but treatable.
The main reasons for the development of cancer cells in the bladder
A variety of provocation, causing increased proliferation of malignant tissue inside the body, so numerous that clearly define the main culprit of the process is not possible. Therefore, prevention of bladder cancer – measures are necessary, but do not give absolute guarantee for a healthy survival. Recently quite a popular hypothesis about the origin of the disease on the background of changes in the DNA molecules, which occur from–for bad ecology, unbalanced diet and unhealthy lifestyle of people. Doctors have identified several major factors influencing the development of bladder cancer.
- Chronic cystitis with constant and frequent relapses is the main provocateur of the reproduction of malignant cells.
- Harmful professional conditions of life and work of the patient – significant forecast for the development of this disease. Most often, bladder cancer is diagnosed in people relating to active chemicals: paints, detergents, cleaning agents, various solvents and other reagents. For this reason, in the category of risk are workers in dental clinics, beauty salons, repair crews, various services and other.
- Chronic Smoking, in addition to chemical pairs, creates increased stress on the urinary system, which significantly increases the risk of the cancer process, and reduces the survival rate of patients.
- States with a history of chemo and blast radiation, especially if the treatment was due to diseases of the pelvic organs (swelling of cervical, and others), also give a great forecast of the spread of cancer cells in the bladder.
- Continuous use of the urinary catheter is a fairly high factor to the development of bladder cancer.
Despite the fact that scientists have proved a genetic predisposition of people to reproduction of cancer cells, the disease of the bladder has nothing to do with genetic memory. Age category of the patients is also not clearly defined, but the risk of developing the disease increases considerably after 65 years. And bladder cancer in women develops much less frequently than the male population.
The classification of cancer of the bladder
For a better understanding of the disease and proper treatment, doctors divide bladder cancer into three main types:
- Carcinoma — transitional cell type of the disease is the beginning of any malignancy. In this type the cancer cells are localized in the inner tissues of the body and can take the form of life of the bladder during normal functioning: to stretch and contract.
- Squamous cell type of bladder cancer is a provocation to develop only after a long course of chronic infectious diseases. When the mucous of the body for a long time irritated and inflamed, carcinoma sooner or later will begin their development and reproduction.
- Adenocarcinoma is exposed to the patient after the growth of malignant cells spreading to the glandular tissue of the bladder. Is considered the most severe stage of the disease, it is most difficult to respond to treatment. The survival rate of patients with a diagnosis of adenocarcinoma is quite low.
In addition to these main types of malignant neoplasms in the bladder, there is another wording:
- Surface carcinoma – when cancer develops in the mucous tissues of the body.
- Invasive bladder cancer (adenocarcinoma) – a phenomenon enhanced reproduction of malignant cells within the muscle fibers with the transition to the lymphatic system and adjacent organs of the body causing metastasis to the cervix, urethra, and other.
Signs and symptoms of initial stage of formation of the disease
The main popular symptoms of a disease, such as bladder cancer are:
- Frequent and painful urination in small portions. And pain can accompany the whole urinary process, and stay after it.
- The presence of blood in the urine.
- Severe General weakness and fatigue.
- Weight loss and pale skin.
- Pain around the lumbar region and lower abdomen are signs of pressure of the tumor on the internal organs of the body.
- Swelling of the lower extremities in the ankle.
Sometimes, especially in severe cases, bladder cancer can be viewed visually in the form of various lumps. The survival of malignant cells, in this case high in the presence of any treatment.
Diagnostic measures to clarify the diagnosis of adenocarcinoma
Any research begins with laboratory diagnostics of biological material of the patient. If you suspect bladder cancer is assigned a General analysis of blood and urine to determine the difference from the norm. Special attention is given to the number of erythrocytes and leukocytes in the blood, the ratio of which to each other has a different value in the presence of cancer pathology.
Urine is checked for the number of red cells in field of view, indicating the amount of blood and white blood cells, showing the extent of the inflammatory process in the body. Modern medicine today very actively uses a special urine analysis called cancer markers. With their assistance quite quickly and easily detected carcinoma and adenocarcinoma, as well as forecast the rate of development of complications.
The most accurate records about the life of the neoplasms in the urinary bladder gives zitostaticescoe study. Apparatus in the form of a thin hose with a camera at the end will not only show the doctor a visual picture of the disease, but will also take a biopsy of a piece of diseased tissue. By biopsy oncologists determine the degree, type and shape of malignant cells that formed a tumor of the bladder.
Ultrasound examination and computed tomography of clear information on the localization of the tumor, presence of metastases and their orientation.
After carrying out all assigned diagnostic procedures, the doctor puts the diagnosis with the obligatory clarification of the stage of the disease. Bladder cancer, like any cancer has 4 stages of neglect.
- Zero is virtually undetectable as it has no symptoms symptoms. In case of accidental detection of cancer cells that failed to grow in the mucous membrane of the body, the prognosis for survival and complete deliverance from a disease like cancer is 99%.
- The first stage affects the lining tissue of the body, but is quite treatable with a high percentage of efficiency.
- The second stage informs about the transition growth of cancer cells in the muscle fibers of the bladder wall, but not hurt adipose tissue. Treated difficult, and the prognosis of the effectiveness of therapeutic interventions is 70%.
- Adenocarcinoma of the third stage is characterized by the spread of the disease to adjacent organs of the pelvis (carcinoma cervix, ovarian), without lymph node involvement. Even with correct treatment the chance of survival is 50% of the patients.
- In fact, the last and incurable stage four is fraught with the presence of metastases and germination of cancerous tumors in the lymphatic system of the body. Totally inoperable adenocarcinoma in 20% of cases ensures low life expectancy of the patient, reach 5 years.
The basis of therapeutic treatments for cancer of the bladder
A tumor of the bladder after has such treatments on the basis of type, shape and stage the severity of the disease:
- Surgical treatment of bladder cancer involves removal of the malignant tumors in a single lesion localization and complete resection of the body after the discovery of more than one tumor.
- Chemotherapy drug whose main goal is the destruction of malignant tumors by slowing the growth of cancer cells and their complete destruction.
- Radiation exposure is performed using x-ray beams capable of targeting bladder cancer with destructive force.
Chemotherapeutic and radiation therapy may be used in combination with surgery, and its duration depends on the form of the disease. That is sometimes the patient is prescribed a course of radio or chemotherapy before or after removal of the tumor.
Bladder cancer treatment folk remedies will only aggravate the situation and bring the process to the last incurable stage, in which the survival rate is very low. Diet for bladder cancer should be prescribed by the attending physician in accordance with individual tolerance of the patient and the type of disease, given the characteristics of its manifestation.
Preventing the development of the disease and its relapses.
Treatment of bladder cancer – the process is very long, complex and not always effective. A forecast of the revival of life of malignant cells is quite high and accurate. Brand to protect themselves from the disease is impossible, but to try to avoid recurrences. Prevention of bladder cancer consists of easily implementable conditions:
- To quit Smoking.
- To exclude effects on the body any substances with the chemical composition, or to reduce them to a critical minimum.
- Diet for bladder cancer should be rich in fruits, vegetables and plenty of drinking.
- Psychological tranquility and limitation of physical activity.
Despite the possibility of recurrence, do not forget that timely access to a doctor if you see warning signs, early diagnosis and proper treatment methods will help to cure cancer of the bladder, and increase the life expectancy of the patient.